09-2010C-10 - Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9...

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Unformatted text preview: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Objectives Describe how covalent bonds serve as an energy store Describe the relationship between form and function Relate the caloric requirements of humans to the energy requirements for cellular reactions Describe the workings of each phase of cellular respiration with emphasis on the reactants, the products, the net production of ATP and the cellular locations Explain how alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation can be used to generate ATP in the absence of oxygen Introduction Harvesting chemical energy involves mitochondria generates ATP With adequate O 2 supplies food is burnt (aerobic respiration) In absence of O 2 food molecules are fermented Overview of Cellular Respiration Glucose is broken down yielding energy Breakdown is catabolic Synthesis or build up is anabolic Overview of Cell Respiration Cell respiration stores energy in ATP molecules overall equation: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2----> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy efficiency ~40% compared with car ~25% Energy is used for body maintenance and voluntary activity average human needs ~2200kcal/day Molecular Basics Energy obtained by transferring electrons (Hydrogens) from organic molecules to oxygen movement of H + represents electron movement involves series of steps coupling endergonic and exergonic reactions Molecular Basics Hydrogen carriers (like NAD + ) shuttle electrons paired endergonic-exergonic reactions are known as redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions oxidation-loss of electron, exergonic reduction-gain of electron, endergonic breakdown of glucose involves series of redox reactions at each step breakdown portion oxidized and NAD + reduced to NADH Molecular Basics Energy released when electrons fall from hydrogen carrier to oxygen NADH releases energetic electrons, regenerating NAD + electrons enter electron transport chain series of redox reactions, passes electrons from one molecule to next ultimate electron acceptor is oxygen small amounts of energy released to make ATP Molecular Basics: Two mechs to make...
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09-2010C-10 - Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9...

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