14-15-2010-10 - Patterns of Inheritance Chapters 14 and 15...

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Unformatted text preview: Patterns of Inheritance Chapters 14 and 15 Objectives Describe Mendels experimental framework and approach Explain the distinction between the terms in the following pairs: gene and allele, dominant and recessive, homozygous and heterozygous, phenotype and genotype, and monohydrid cross and dihybrid cross Explain the experimental background of Mendels principle of segregation; define this principle and explain its chromosomal basis Explain the experimental background of Mendels principal of independent assortment; define this principle and explain its chromosomal basis Describe the four patterns of inheritance that do not follow Mendels principles Explain how chromosomes (including sex chromosomes) determine gender differently in a variety of organisms Describe the pattern of inheritance of sex-linked characteristics Introduction Ch 14 Observation of organisms and offspring show patterns of inheritance Can be explained by behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization Historical ideas Greeks-believed in pangenesis; inheritance particles for each characteristic collect in eggs an sperm, passed to next generation 19th century-blending hypothesis; characteristics of parents blend in offspring Gregor Mendel and Modern Genetics Gregor Mendel and the study of genetics university trained in experimental technique had background in mathematics and understood probabilities worked with peas short life span numerous and distinctive characteristics mating can be controlled intentionally self-fertilized flower by covering with bag or cross-fertilized flowers by dusting carpels of one with pollen from other continuous self-fertilization for many generations resulted in true breeding plants Monohybrid vs Dihybrid Monohybrid means dealing with a single trait Monohybrid means dealing with a single trait Like eye color or hair color Like eye color or hair color Dihybrid means dealing with two traits at the Dihybrid means dealing with two traits at the same time same time Like eye color and hair color Like eye color and hair color Mendel used monohybrid and dihybrid crosses developed two principles on the basis of two types of experiments monhybrid cross-hybridized two true-breeding plants for one form of a single characteristic dihybrid cross-hybridized plants that combined two of the seven characteristics he studied In the Mendel experiments: true-breeding plants are P (parental) generation offspring is F 1 (first filial) generation offspring of two F 1 s is F 2 (second filial) generation Mendel published in obscure journal in 1866 argued that there are discrete, heritable factors ( now called genes) that retain individuality from generation to generation Alleles Alternative Forms of A Gene That Encode Alternative Forms of A Gene That Encode for Differing Forms Of The Same Trait for Differing Forms Of The Same Trait...
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14-15-2010-10 - Patterns of Inheritance Chapters 14 and 15...

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