Chem-Ch-3 - Chapter 3 Molecules,Compounds,and...

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Molecules, Compounds, and  Chemical Equations Chapter 3
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2 Elements and Compounds Elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds The properties of the compound are totally different from the constituent elements
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3 Chemical Bonds Compounds are made of atoms held together by chemical bonds Bonds are forces of attraction between atoms The bonding attraction comes from attractions between protons and electrons
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4 Bond Types Two general types of bonding between atoms found in compounds, ionic and covalent Ionic bonds result when electrons have been transferred between atoms, resulting in oppositely charged ions that attract each other Covalent bonds result when two atoms share some of their electrons
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5 Chemical Formula Compounds are generally represented with a chemical formula All formula and models convey a limited amount of information – none are perfect representations All chemical formulas tell what elements are in the compound use the letter symbol of the element
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6 Types of Formula
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7 Molecular View of  Elements and Compounds
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8 Molecular Elements Certain elements occur as 2 atom molecules Other elements occur as polyatomic molecules P 4 , S 8 , Se 8 H 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 7 7A N 2 O 2 F 2
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9 Ionic vs. Molecular Compounds Propane – contains individual C 3 H 8 molecules Table salt – contains an array of Na + ions and Cl -
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10 Ionic Compounds Metals + nonmetals No individual molecule units, instead have a 3-dimensional array of cations and anions made of formula units Many contain polyatomic ions several atoms attached together in one ion
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11 Write the formula of a compound made  from aluminum ions and oxide ions 1. Write the symbol for the metal cation and its charge 2. Write the symbol for the nonmetal anion and its charge 3. Charge (without sign) becomes subscript for other ion 4. Reduce subscripts to smallest whole number ratio 5. Check that the total charge of the cations cancels the total charge of the anions Al +3 column 3A O 2- column 6A Al +3 O 2- Al 2 O 3 Al = (2)∙(+3) = +6 O = (3)∙(-2) = -6
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12 Practice What are the formulas for compounds  made from the following ions? potassium ion with a nitride ion calcium ion with a bromide ion aluminum ion with a sulfide ion
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13 Metal Cations Metals with Invariant Charge metals whose ions can only have one possible charge Groups 1A +1 & 2A +2 , Al +3 , Ag +1 , Zn +2 , Sc +3 cation name = metal name Metals with Variable Charges metals whose ions can have more than one possible charge determine charge by charge on anion cation name = metal name with Roman numeral charge in parentheses
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14 Naming Monatomic Nonmetal Anion Determine the charge from position on the Periodic Table To name anion, change ending on the element name to ide 4A = -4 5A = -3 6A = -2 7A = -1 C = carbide N = nitride O = oxide F = fluoride Si = silicide P = phosphide S = sulfide Cl = chloride
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2011 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Geiger during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chem-Ch-3 - Chapter 3 Molecules,Compounds,and...

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