Chem-Ch7 - Chapter 7 T he QuantumM echanical M odel of the...

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The Quantum- Mechanical Model of the Atom Chapter 7
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2
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3 The Behavior of the Very Small Electrons are incredibly small Electron behavior determines much of the behavior of atoms Directly observing electrons in the atom is impossible, the electron is so small that observing it changes its behavior
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4 Quantum Mechanical Model Explains the manner electrons exist and behave in atoms Helps us understand and predict the properties of atoms that are directly related to the behavior of the electrons why some elements are metals while others are nonmetals why some elements gain 1 electron when forming an anion, while others gain 2 why some elements are very reactive while others are practically inert and other Periodic patterns we see in the properties of the elements
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5 The Wave Nature of Light A wave is a continuously repeating change or oscillation in matter or in a physical field. Light is also a wave. It consists of oscillations in electric and magnetic fields that travel through space. Visible light, X rays, and radio waves are all forms of electromagnetic radiation.
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6 Electromagnetic Radiation
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7 The Wave Nature of Light A wave can be characterized by its wavelength and frequency. o The wavelength, λ (lambda), is the distance between any two adjacent identical points of a wave. o The frequency, μ (nu), of a wave is the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point in one second.
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8 o So, given the frequency of light, its wavelength can be calculated, or vice versa. The Wave Nature of Light The product of the frequency, ν , (waves/sec) and the wavelength, λ (m/wave) would give the speed of the wave in m/s. ν λ = c
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9 Example - Calculate the wavelength of red light with a frequency of 4.62 x 10 14 s -1 Check: Solve: Concept Plan: Relationships: Given: Find:
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10 Practice Calculate the wavelength of a radio signal with a frequency of 100.7 MHz
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11 Visible light extends from the violet end of the spectrum at about 400 nm to the red end with wavelengths about 800 nm. Beyond these extremes, electromagnetic radiation is not visible to the human eye. The range of frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum . Electro Electro magnetic magnetic Spectrum Spectrum
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12 Electro magnetic Spectrum
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13 Continuous Spectrum
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14 The Photoelectric Effect It was observed that many metals emit electrons when a light shines on their surface this is called the Photoelectric Effect Classic wave theory attributed this effect to the light energy being transferred to the electron According to this theory, if the wavelength of light is made shorter, or the light waves intensity made brighter, more electrons should be ejected
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15 The Photoelectric Effect
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16 The Photoelectric Effect The Problem In experiments with the photoelectric effect, it was observed that there was a maximum wavelength for electrons to be emitted called the threshold frequency
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2011 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Geiger during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chem-Ch7 - Chapter 7 T he QuantumM echanical M odel of the...

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