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Parker - Graham AC

Parker - Graham AC - Off opportunity cost Look to who did...

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Off opportunity cost: Look to who did the better debating Off textuality burden: A. Interpretation: Multiple nec. But insufficient burdens are illegitimate B. Violation: The aff. Runs multiple nec. But insufficient args. C. Standards: strat skew, grounds, predictability D. Proving only one instance of immorality destroys my strategy because he has multiple instances Even if I answer most of them, he can just extend one to win. This is an explosion of ground because it limits the amount of offense needed to win. And, this destroys reciprocity because he has less to prove in order to affir. Reciprocity is key to fairness since debate is a competitive activity predicated on both debaters having equitable access to the ballot. F E. Voter: Fairness is a voter because debate is a competive activity predicated on both debaters having equitable access to the ballot. It is unfair have to prove less to win. A. Interpretation: the aff. must defend the resolution as a general statement rather than a specific scenario B. Violation: the negative only defends US self-interests, a subset of the resolution. C. Standards ( ) Unpredictable—the aff doesn’t address the resolution as a general statement which is how its proposed. Predictability is key to equal preparation ( ) Limits—no way to predict which sanction the neg will defend. Haass: Richard N. Haass [President, Council on Foreign Relations], Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy , Council on Foreign Relations, June 1998. http://www.cfr.org/publication/2765/economic_sanctions_and_american_diplomacy.html?breadcrumb=%2Fpublication%2Fpublication_list %3Fgroupby%3D1%26type%3Dbook%26page%3D3&excerpt=1 The evidence of the latter contention is widespread. The United States now maintains economic sanctions against literally dozens of countries. One recent study listed no less than 35 countries that had been targeted by new American sanctions from 1993 to 1996 alone .
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