Thihan Nyun defines economic sanctions.
Economic sanctions can be defined, depending on the particular role one would like sanctions to play in international affairs, in two different
ways. Economic sanctions can either encompass every measure designed to inflict economic deprivation oconsideration only the economic
deprivation inflicted upon a target country, and not the means employed to bring about that deprivation. As a result, any measure - economic or
military - that disrupts the economic activity of an adversary would qualify as an economic sanction. Conversely,
a definition based on the
means, which is commonly accepted today, narrows the scope of what constitutes economic sanctions by focusing only on trade-disrupting
Hufbauer and colleagues define economic sanctions as "the deliberate, government-inspired withdrawal, or threat of withdrawal, of
customary trade or financial relations."
synthesis of the literature reveals
the following definition,
which will be used
for this Article:
economic sanctions are the
actual or threatened
withdrawal of normal trade or financial
imposed by the sender against the target, for foreign policy purposes. Under this approach,
economic sanctions are
limited to restrictions on trade, investment, and other cross-border economic activity that reduce[s]
the target country's revenues, thereby facilitating the desired change without resorting to military
Economic sanctions therefore do not entail freezing assets because they do not affect the entire
economy. This definition is preferable because it takes into account the literature. And, as the
affirmative, I should be allowed to define the evaluative terms of the debate as a strategic
tradeoff for the clear Aff/Neg time skew absent clear abuse.
According to Walter Sinott-Armstrong
That 'ought' implies 'permitted .'
follows from the standard definition of 'permitted' as 'not
is a theorem in classical and intuitionist logic.
The resolution implicates some form of moral obligation due to the word ought. Thus, the
Ought – used to express obligation (Merriam Webster)
The value of objects is conditional on a rational will conferring that value; no object is “naturally”
valuable. This necessitates treating those with a will as ends in themselves. Christine Korsgaard writes,
1 Moral Dilemmas and ‘Ought and Ought Not’
Canadian Journal of Philosophy
, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Mar., 1987), pp. 127-139
Christine Korsgaard, “Two Distinctions in Goodness,” The Philosophical Review, Vol. 92, No. 2 (Apr.,