Dental Nutrition Units 8-10

Dental Nutrition Units 8-10 - Unit 8­ Dietary Guidelines...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 8­ Dietary Guidelines Unit 8­ Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Dietary Guidelines for Americans Established in 1990 by the United States Department of Agriculture. s Purpose is to help Americans be healthier by modifying their dietary lifestyle choices. s Guidelines emphasize 7 key points: s 7 Key Guidelines 7 Key Guidelines s s s s s s s Eat a variety of foods Maintain a healthy weight Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits, and grains. Use sugars in moderation. Use salt and sodium in moderation. If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Eat a Variety of Foods Eat a Variety of Foods s s s Nutrients come from a variety of foods Many foods are good sources of several nutrients Choose foods each day from the major food groups Maintain a Healthy Weight Maintain a Healthy Weight s s Too fat or too thin can result in health problems Eat a variety of foods in relative proportions Choose a diet Low in Fat, Choose a diet Low in Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol s s s Only 30 percent of daily caloric intake from fats Saturated fat should be less than 10% of calories Cholesterol should be no more than 300 milligrams per day Calculating fat percentage Calculating fat percentage Step 1: multiply 30 percent by the number of calories per day. Step 2: divide the number of calories by 9 (there are 9 calories per gram of fat) Example: 2,000 calorie/day diet 2,000 X .30= 600 calories from fat 600 divided by 9 (calories per gram) = 66.66 Approximately 67 grams of fat allowed per day. Easy shortcut­divide ideal weight in half! (110lbs=55 grams fat) Calculate this sample Calculate this sample s 1800 calories X .30= s Divide by 9= 1800X.30=540.00 540divided by9= 60 grams of fat Average American diet has 8 Tablespoons! Choose a diet with plenty of Choose a diet with plenty of Vegetables, Fruits, and Grains s s s Important part of a varied diet Provide complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and other nutrients Generally low in fat Use Sugar and Salt in Use Sugar and Salt in Moderation s s s Sugar supplies calories but are limited in nutrients High sodium/salt intake has been associated with high­blood pressure Limit sodium intake to 2,500 mg/day­ (1 ¼ tsp.) If you drink Alcohol do so in If you drink Alcohol do so in Moderation s s s s s Supplies calories but no nutrients. 7 calories/gram. Linked to many health problems & accidents. Leads to addiction. Pregnant women should not drink alcoholic beverages. Food Groups Food Groups Each provides some but not all nutrients needed daily. Foods in one group cannot replace those in another. Key is proportional amounts from each group. Recommended range of servings from each group. Notice that recommended serving size, portions are small. Bread, Cereal, and Pasta Bread, Cereal, and Pasta 6­11 servings per day s Serving: 1 slice of bread 1 ounce of cereal ½ cup cooked cereal, rice or pasta s Vegetables Vegetables 3­5 servings per day s Serving: 1 cup raw leafy vegetable ½ cup cooked vegetables ¾ cup vegetable juice s Fruits Fruits 2­4 servings per day s Serving: 1 medium apple, banana, or orange ½ cup chopped or cooked canned fruit ¾ cup fruit juice s Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese s 2­3 servings per day Serving: 1 cup milk or yogurt 1 ½ ounce natural cheese 2 ounces processed cheese s Meat, Poultry, Dried Beans, Meat, Poultry, Dried Beans, Eggs, Nuts s s s s s s 2­3 Servings per day Serving: 2­3 ounces cooked lean meat two eggs 1 cup dried beans 2 tablespoons peanut butter Fats and Oils Fats and Oils s s s s s s s Tip of the pyramid Saturated fats increase heart disease Calories, little or no vitamins, minerals Limit fats to 30% of calories Choose lean meat, skim milk, unsaturated vegetable oils, Avoid fried foods­ 14 fries=11 grams Baked potato has trace of fat Food Labeling Information Food Labeling Information Important information about nutrients contained in any given food s controlled by 2 government agencies: s – United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) United States Department of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) s Regulates and monitors labels for meat, poultry, and eggs. Federal Food and Drug Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) s Regulates and monitors food labeling for most other foods. Canned goods, snacks etc... Nutritional Labeling and Nutritional Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) s s s Became effective in 1994 Makes nutritional labeling mandatory for most foods under the FDA jurisdiction. Labeling includes: – – – – serving size and servings per container calories per serving and calories from fat protein by grams per serving total carbohydrates grams/serving and as % of daily value Labeling Information (cont.) Labeling Information (cont.) – Sugar and dietary fiber in grams – Sodium in grams and as the % of the daily value – Total fat and saturated fat listed in grams – Cholesterol listed in milligrams and as % of daily value Sample of Sample of food label Diet Diary Diet Diary Used to evaluate how well you are meeting your nutritional needs s simplest form would be a 24 hr. diary s include these key details: s – what time did you eat, was it part of a meal or snack – what did you eat (name each food) – how was the food prepared? Fried, broiled? Diet diary (cont.) Diet diary (cont.) – What serving size did you have of each food. (approximately) – list “extras” such as butter, jelly, ketchup, salad dressing, mayonnaise, etc… – list all snacks, munchies, and beverages. Diet Analysis Diet Analysis Complete a 7 day record s Next week will provide forms to do analysis: s – Analysis of food groups & servings – Analysis for cariogenic food score – Suggestions for improving the quality of diet and eliminating sucrose intake s Will count as an exam grade Review samples of diet Review samples of diet analysis s One day surveys to practice on…. Physical signs and cause of Physical signs and cause of Malnutrition s Review handout – – – – – – – – – – Hair Face Eyes Lips Tongue Teeth Gums Glands Skin nails Oral changes with nutritional Oral changes with nutritional deficiencies s Handout – – – – – – – Cheilosis(Riboflavin) Scurvy(Vit C) Pellagra(Niacin) Beriberi(Thiamin) Leukoplakia Enamel hypoplasia Anemia(B12,Folic acid) Unit Nine Unit Nine Special Nutritional Needs s Prenatal and pregnancy needs – Nutritional status important before and during pregnancy – Influences growth & development of tissue Prenatal dental development Prenatal dental development s s s s odontogenesis=­tooth formation begins as early as 6th week of embryonic life Calcification of primary teeth begins at four months in utero Formation of many permanent teeth has already started by birth Mineralized tissues­ require calcium, phosphorus etc… Maternal Care Maternal Care s s s s Smoking during pregnancy can lead to low birth weight Dietary recommendations supplements Regular dental care during pregnancy Myth­”lose a tooth for every child” Infancy Infancy s s s Birth­2 years of age­ second only to fetal stage for rapidness of body development Excellent nutritionally dense foods are needed Calcification of permanent crowns starts at birth thru 8 years –exception is 3rd molars which finish around 16 yrs Breast Feeding Breast Feeding s s Best source of food for newborn’s nutritional needs Provides protection against infection by way of Mom’s antibodies Fluoride supplements­Maximum Fluoride supplements­Maximum benefits if provided daily from birth on…(12 yrs) Nursing bottle syndrome Nursing bottle syndrome s s s Bottle as pacifier, esp. with sugared liquids May first appear clinically 2­3 yrs after giving up bottle Parents­avoid sugar in bottle, dipping pacifier in honey, sleeping with bottle Preschool Child Preschool Child s s s s s “picky eaters” Growth slows, less energy needs Food child eats needs to be nutrient dense Sweets at this stage may begin pattern of caries Sealants applied School Age Child School Age Child s s s Lifetime eating patterns are being established Food has social, emotional and psychological implications Need strong nutritional guidance by parents School age child still obese after 5 Years of age often faces battle of Obesity for life Adolescence Adolescence s s s s s Rapid physical growth & development 2nd only to infancy Adolescent growth spurt may contribute 15­25% of adult height Intense change and stress Hormonal changes Eating disorders: – Anorexia nervosa­puberty, poor attitude, self image, self­imposed weight loss – Bulimia nervosa­binge­purge s Amenorrhea­lack of menstruation Dental Implications of eating Dental Implications of eating disorders s Lemon-sucking Bulimia/vomiting vomit­acid­erosion – Shiny, polished surfaces – Treatment­rinse with alkaline solution­do not brush (breaks down enamel more) – fluoride Carbonated beverages Adulthood Adulthood s s s s s s s Bone formation­peak bone mass @ 25yr Remodeling­ongoing process(age 30­40 resorption begins to exceed formation) Osteoporosis­loss of bone mass/density Serum cholesterol­less than 200 Low density lipoproteins (LDL) High­density lipoproteins (HDL) Hypertension and salt The Elderly The Elderly s s 65 years and older Factors influence nutritional status: – Personal habits, economic limits, sociological factors, drugs, physical limitations, lack of knowledge, loss of dentition,”too late attitude” s s s s s s Specialized Needs of the Specialized Needs of the Energy needs­ elderly decreased activity Protein needs­do not change Complex carbs­ contribute to fiber Refined carbs­tend to consume more sweets, easier to prepare, lower in cost, =empty calories Fats­decrease to avoid obesity, heart disease Vitamins & minerals­ consider supplements Osteoporosis­ Osteoporosis­ steps to prevent s should begin early s in life s s s s s Age is no reason to stop exercising 1­loss of bone mass 2­Dowager’s hump 3­alveolar bone loss Prevention­ 1 exercise 2 adequate calcium intake 3 estrogen replacement therapy – Cancer link End of Unit Nine End of Unit Nine special nutritional needs over the lifespan Unit Ten Special Diets for Unit Ten Special Diets for Dental Patients Wound Healing Wound Healing Injury creates a favored biological site s Body may draw from other tissues to provide repair (priority changes after time) s s What can we do prior to surgery? Liquid Diets­handouts Liquid Diets­handouts s Clear liquid diets – Broths, gelatin, liquids – Digests easily, no residue s Full liquid diets – Liquid @room or body temperature s Liquid Formula Foods – Commercially produced­ ensure Soft Diets Soft Diets s Biting or chewing difficulties – Supplementation – Modifications of normal diet, – Eliminates foods difficult to chew s Supplementation – Depends on nutritional state prior to surgery – Patients ability to meet nutritional requirements with diet Modified Diets Modified Diets s Bonding veneers on anterior teeth s Injured anterior teeth s – avoid chewing ice/hard foods – avoid biting into apples, carrots, etc­cut small pieces s – cut into small pieces – fresh fruits, chew – avoid sandwiches­try soup, softened crackers – avoid hard toast, rolls Wired Jaws­fractured jaw – Full liquid diet, eat 5­6 times a day, plenty of fluids – *Should be managed under supervision of professional dietician Temporomandibular Joint Disorders – Difficulty opening mouth – Pain with chewing – Liquid diet may be needed s Orthodontic Patients – Avoid Cariogenic foods – Foods to avoid Other conditions… Other conditions… Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis Dietary modifications­ liquid or soft diet, avoid spicy foods, choose bland foods, (gelatin/ice cream),frequent small meals, fluids, dietary supplements if recommended by dentist Periodontal surgery Periodontal surgery s Dietary modifications­ – Avoid alcoholic beverages,spicy foods, drink cold first 24 hours, soft diet first 24­48 hours, avoid popcorn, hard/ sticky foods Oral surgery Oral surgery POI/do not disturb clot;liquids, soft diet, avoid alcoholic Beverages, spicy /hot foods/liquids New denture patient­must New denture patient­must learn to speak, chew s s s s s 1 cut small pieces 2 chew slowly 3 avoid sticky, hard foods at first 4 chew on both sides 5 be careful w/HOT food­less sensitive to temperatures Immediate denture patient Immediate denture patient s 2 part problem – Recovering from surgery – Must adjust to new denture May need soft diet for few days Xerostomia Xerostomia Caused by disease, drugs, radiation therapy s Use sugarless mints, gum s Artificial saliva s End of Units 8, 9, and 10 End of Units 8, 9, and 10 Diet surveys and sucrose intake project should be completed and turned in for a grade s Exam #4 over units 8, 9, and 10 s Final examination will be comprehensive! ...
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