Dental Nutrition Units 4-5

Dental Nutrition Units 4-5 - Units Four & Five...

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Carbohydrates & Water
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Major Function of Carbohydrates Energy nutrients Plant sources Primary fuel for 2/3’s of total energy needs Furnish dietary fiber for peristalsis and elimination Adds sweetness and taste to food Supplies other nutrients such as vitamins and minerals Aids in complete “burn” of fats (otherwise fats build up and cause “acidosis” Acidosis is a high level of acid in food If deficiency, body will burn protein as energy (protein saving nutrient)
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Deficiency of Carbs Leads to Ketosis Cells are starved for carbs, breaks down fats-leaves fatty acids which cannot be completely burned (oxidized) Leaves intermediary products of Ketones Symptoms: Fruity-smelling breath, decreased appetite, increased urination, thirst. An excessive breakdown of protein, loss of sodium, and involuntary dehydration
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Sources of carbohydrates Complex carbs- vegetable products, grains, fruits, milk products have carbs in milk sugar/lactose Refined carbs-sugar, syrup, jelly, bread, cookies, cakes Body processes alcohol as refined carb
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Three primary functions Sweetness- simple sugars-mono & disaccharides Thickening power- starches digestible polysaccharides Texture-fiber-indigestible polysaccharides Complex-polysaccharides
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Three Classifications of carbohydrates Monosaccharides -Single sugars, simplest form, most readily utilized by body: Glucose-(dextrose)blood sugar Fructose- (fruit sugar) sweetest form, fruit, juice, honey; liver converts to glucose Galactose-less soluble & not as sweet as glucose; liver converts into glucose
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Disaccharides- double sugars, must be broken down Sucrose- (table sugar) glucose + fructose Lactose- (milk sugar) only sugar not from plant source, remains in intestine longer, encourages useful bacteria growth Maltose- formed when enzyme breaks down starch Raffinose- molasses
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Polysaccharides - more complex carbs Starch- nutritionally the most important carb, digestion takes longer, energy released slowly Glycogen- animal equivalent of starch Cellulose-vegetable fiber, not digested
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Naturally occurring sources of carbohydrates-see the molecules
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More about Glucose Form of sugar normally found n blood (blood sugar) Produced thru digestion of carbohydrates Absorbed into bloodstream & utilized directly by tissues Excess is stored in liver and muscles as “Glycogen” Glycogen is broken down into glucose as needed Excess beyond glycogen is converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue
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More about sugar… 115 calories per ounce with no nutrients (empty calories) Consume 127 lbs per year per person (600 calories per day) 70% of the sweeteners are in manufactured foods and beverages Review list of sugar content in foods
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Sweetening agents contribute no nutrients or significant calories
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Dental Nutrition Units 4-5 - Units Four & Five...

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