Dental Nutrition Units 6-7

Dental Nutrition Units 6-7 - Unit 6-7 Unit Vitamins and...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 6-7 Unit Vitamins and Minerals Unit Six -Vitamins Unit Functions of vitamins: – – – – Organic substances (plant or animal origin) Present in food in minute amounts Assist in processing other nutrients Participate in formation of blood cells, hormones, Participate genetic materials, and nervous system chemicals genetic – Serve as coenzymes (assist enzymes in functions) Actions of a coenzyme Actions Enzyme-a substance Enzyme-a that causes a chemical change or breakdown in other substances in Coenzyme-a substance Coenzyme-a that works in cooperation with enzymes. Usually contain vitamins as part of their structure part Antioxidants Antioxidants Substance that slows the deterioration of Substance materials through the oxidation process materials Vitamin C , E, beta carotene (precursor of Vitamin vitamin A), melatonin vitamin Precursor- substance from which another Precursorsubstance is formed substance Daily Vitamin Needs Daily Critical to health but Critical needed in minute amounts needed Expressed in milligrams, Expressed micrograms, retinol equivalents, RDA’s, or international units international Daily requirements: Daily RDA’s or ESI’s (estimated safe intake) (estimated Vitamins are non-energy Vitamins non-energy releasing nutrients releasing Fat Soluble Vitamins Fat ADEK Absorbed with aid of fats or bile Not destroyed by cooking Stored in the body fat Not essential for daily intake (stored) Excessive amounts can be toxic (stored) Vitamin A (Retinol) Vitamin Healthy skin, hair, nails, mucous membrane Night vision Health of cells (lines internal and external surfaces of Health lungs, intestines, stomach, etc lungs, Bone growth Dental development Reproduction Two basic forms of Vitamin A- preformed & Provitamin A Preformed Vitamin A: Retinol Retinol animal sources Named after specific Named function in retina of eye eye Deposited in liver, Deposited kidney, lung & fat tissue tissue Found mainly in dairy Found products, egg yolk, organs such as liver organs Provitamin A: Provitamin Beta-Carotene Plant pigment substance Carotene- named after Caroteneyellow pigment of carrots yellow Most common precursor Most of vitamin A (intestinal conversion of carotene into vitamin A) into Supplies about 2/3 of Supplies vitamin vitamin Liver, kidneys, eggs, milk, Liver, butter butter Dark green vegs, fruit Dark sources of carotene, carrots, sweet potatoes, broccoli broccoli List of foods ranked according to beta-carotene content from highest to lowest lowest Deficiency of Vitamin A Deficiency Night blindness, drying of eyes Skin & mucous membranes dermatitis, Skin (leukoplakia) (leukoplakia) Poor dental & skeletal development Fetal malformation, hair loss, bone pain Vitamin D Vitamin Assists with absorption of calcium & Assists phosphorus phosphorus Aids in formation & maintenance of strong Aids bones and teeth bones Skin precursor cholesterol compound, Skin irradiated by the sun, produces vit. D3 irradiated Synthesis of Vitamin D Vitamin Sources of Vitamin D Sources Fortified milk Egg yolk Liver Tuna sunlight Deficiency of Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets Hypocalcaemia (enamel Hypocalcaemia hypoplasia) hypoplasia) Osteomalacia (softening) Osteoporosis (porosity) Megadose risks- – Calcium deposits – Kidney & cardiovascular Kidney damage damage Vitamin E Vitamin Formation of red Formation blood cells, muscles blood Antioxidant Sources of vitamin E – Vegetable oils, Vegetable margarine margarine Deficiency– Rare Megadose risks– Not known Vitamin K Vitamin Aids in formation of Aids blood clotting factors (prothrombin) (prothrombin) Normal bone Normal metabolism metabolism Sources of Vitamin K – Made in intestinal tract Made by bacteria by – Food –green leafy Food vegetables, peas, cabbage cabbage Deficiency of Vitamin K Deficiency Hemorrhage, Hemorrhage, especially in newborn especially Supplements if on Supplements prolonged antibiotic therapy therapy Megadose risks- – Not observed Summary of the Fat-Soluble Vitamins Summary Water Soluble Vitamins- C and B Water C & B complex vitamins Not stored in body Daily sources are essential Fragile, easily destroyed by cooking, Fragile, improper storage improper Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid Vitamin Formation of collagen & Formation wound healing wound Maintain capillaries, Maintain bones, teeth bones, Aids in absorption of iron Sources of Vitamin C – Citrus fruits, tomatoes, Citrus cabbage, dark green vegetables vegetables Deficiency– Scurvy – Dental signs (bleeding Dental gums, poor healing) gums, Vitamins B-complex Vitamins Related in function each component Related performs performs Interdependent* Primarily serve as coenzymes* Vitamin B1-Thiamin– Beriberi-damages nervous & cardiovascular, granular Beriberi-damages or pebbly tongue or Vitamin B2-Riboflavin– Cheilosis- cracks corners of mouth, burning, soreness Cheilosison mouth, tongue on Vitamin B3-Niacin – Pellagra- 3 D’s disease- diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, Pellagraswollen, red or ulcerated tongue swollen, Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine – Glossitis, Cheilosis – Megadose-severe nerve damage Vitamin B12- Cobalamin – – – Anemia Formation of red blood cells Requires a carrier to transport from GI tract to blood Folacin-Folic Acid – Megaloblasitic anemia (enlarged RBC’s) – Aids in formation of hemoglobin (oxygen Aids carrying component) carrying – B12 and Folic Acid= anemia factors Biotin Pantothenic Acid Summary of waterof soluble soluble Vitamins Vitamins Questions on Vitamins Questions The B vitamins functions as a? Name one organ often affected by Name deficiency of B vitamin? deficiency List the stored vitamins Name the vitamins that are water soluble What vitamin is made in intestinal tract? What vitamin is necessary when taking What iron? iron? Minerals, Trace Elements, and Minerals, Electrolytes Unit Seven Functions of minerals Functions Inorganic substances (composed of matter Inorganic other than plant/animal origin other Constituents of bones/teeth, gives rigidity* Maintains muscle and nerve reaction Maintains acid-base & fluid electrolyte Maintains balance balance Helps make up hormones Makes up 3 to 4 percent of total body Makes weight weight Works together to maintain balance/health Deficiency or excess Deficiency may affect other minerals minerals Serous risks associated Serous with megadoses (2 X’s RDA=toxic) RDA=toxic) Amount is categorized based upon Amount 1)how much is present in body 2)how much is needed in diet MacromineralsMacromineralsneeded at rate of 100 milligrams per day milligrams – – – – – – – Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sodium Potassium Chlorine sulfur *electrolytes Micominerals- needed Micomineralsin very small amounts in – – – – – – Iron -iodine Zinc -copper Manganese Chromium -cobalt Selenium -fluorine molybdenum Classification of mineralsClassification divided into three major groups: Minerals (macro) Trace elements (micro) Electrolytes- sodium, potassium, chloride Water as medium, fluid balance, Water effects blood pressure, cardiac system Calcium Calcium Building bones & teeth, maintaining bone strength Muscle contraction & relaxation (heartbeat) Blood clotting Transmission of nerve impulses Maintain cell membranes & enzyme reactions Most abundant mineral in body (99% in bones and Most teeth) teeth) Rest in blood, body fluids, tissues, (1%) Body can draw from bones to maintain blood level Body calcium calcium Sources of CalciumSources *Must be accompanied by Vitamin *Must D & C for absorption for Milk and milk Milk products products Sardines, salmon with Sardines, bones bones Dark-green leafy Dark-green vegetables vegetables Citrus fruits dried beans Factors that affect calcium absorption Factors High protein and fat diet Inactivity Age-elderly absorb less readily Medications-corticosteroids, heparin Medications-corticosteroids, (anticoagulant), tetracycline, aluminum containing antiacids, diuretic, caffeine, nicotine nicotine Signs of calcium deficiency deficiency Rickets(lack of Vit.D) Osteoporosis Hypertension Muscle Muscle contractions/reactions contractions/reactions Megadose risks – – Calcium deposits Impaired absorption of Impaired other minerals(iron, zinc, manganese) zinc, – Drowsiness, lethargy Phosphorus Phosphorus -second major mineral Aids in building bones & teeth Releasing energy from carbs, fats, proteins Formation of genetic material, cell Formation membranes, enzymes membranes, 85% in skeleton, 6% in muscles, 9% other 85% tissues tissues 70% dietary phosphate is absorbed; 90% 70% with low phosphate diet with Sources of Phosphorus Phosphorus Meat, fish, eggs Milk products Dried beans Soft drinks Deficiency- – Bone pain, weakness, Bone loss of appetite, malaise malaise – Antacids may cause Antacids deficiency deficiency – Dietary shortage Dietary uncommon uncommon Magnesium Magnesium Bone growth Manufacturer of proteins Aids in release of energy from muscle glycogen Conduction of nerve impulses to muscles SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM – Leafy green vegetables (raw) nuts (almonds & Leafy cashews), soybeans, seeds & whole grains cashews), DEFICIENCY OF MAGNESIUM – Muscle twitching & tremors, weakness, leg/foot Muscle cramps, insomnia, irregular heartbeat, etc cramps, Iron Iron Formation of hemoglobin in blood, myoglobin in Formation muscles muscles Part of enzymes & proteins 70-80% of iron in Blood* SOURCES OF IRON – Liver, kidney, red meat, egg yolk, green leafy vegs, Liver, fruits, whole grains fruits, – Take with Vitamin C* to increase absorption DEFICIENCY OF IRON – Anemia; oral glossitis, cheilosis, grey membrane – Coffee and tea reduces iron use by body* – Greatest loss of iron is blood loss-important for Greatest menstruating and pregnant women menstruating Zinc Zinc Constituent of about 100 enzymes Cell growth, healing, and function of Cell immune system immune Zinc Deficiency- delayed wound healing, Zinc skin lesions, diminished taste sensation and loss of appetite loss – In children- failure to grow and mature sexually Iodine Iodine Thyroxin=metabolic activity – Thyroid hormones, reproduction Sources of Iodine– Seafood, iodized salt, saltwater fish Signs of Iodine deficiency– Goiter: enlargement of thyroid gland Goiter: (deficiency) (deficiency) – Cretinism:lack of physical & mental growth Cretinism:lack (dysfunctional gland) (dysfunctional Goiter Fluoride Fluoride Formation of strong teeth, bones Sources of Fluoride- water, fish, tea Signs of Fluoride Deficiency- decay & Signs osteoporosis osteoporosis Megadose- fluorosis Remaining minerals Remaining Selenium-antioxidant Chromium-glucose Chromium-glucose metabolism metabolism Copper-formation of Copper-formation red blood cells red MolybdenumMolybdenummobilizes iron from liver reserves, oxides fats, components of enzymes enzymes Manganesefunctioning of CNS, functioning bone, reproduction bone, Percent of body weight of Minerals found in an average person found Electrolytes Electrolytes A mineral which, when dissolved in solution, is mineral capable of conducting an electric current capable Protect & equalizes fluids, acts as a cell pump to Protect pump mineral back and forth pump Role is as a universal solvent and carrier Potassium-within cell Sodium-outside cell Chloride-outside cell Potassium Potassium Muscle contraction Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance Transmission of nerve impulses Release of energy from carbs, proteins, fats Sources– Orange juice, bananas, fruits – Meats, bran, peanut butter, dried beans, peas – Potatoes, coffee, tea, cocoa Many fruits and vegetables are good sources of potassium good Sodium Sodium Table salt is 40% Table sodium and 60%chloride 60%chloride One teaspoon of salt One contains about 2 grams of sodium (2000) (2000) Commercial sources of sodium Commercial Condiments, sauces, seasonings Onion, celery, garlic, seasoned and sea salts Baking powder, salad dressings, pickles Soy, steak, barbecue, chili, and Soy, Worcestershire sauces Worcestershire Meat tenderizer, baking soda, salt pork, Meat brine, catsup, mustard, bouillon, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and relish monosodium Chloride Chloride Maintain acid-base & Maintain fluid balance fluid Activates salivary Activates amylase amylase Part of stomach acid Sources- table salt or Sourcesother salt sources other * Table salt is 40% Table sodium and 60% Chloride Chloride Compare Compare % of RDA’s 5000%? End of Units 6 and 7 End Review for exam over units 6 and 7 Complete and turn in quiz questions over Complete units 6 and 7 day of exam units ...
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