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Unformatted text preview: Lesson 4 Disease transmission and Infection Principles of the Disease Process: It is important that we understand that microorganisms are important for many reasons, but especially for the diseases that they can cause. ____________is the result of the inability of the bodys defenses to fight off an infection by a microorganism. If the infection is contained in a very small area, then it is a __________ infection. If the infections spreads and involves all or most of the body it is termed a ___________infection. Disease may be acute or chronic or both. ______ means that the disease process occurs fairly rapidly. (The disease begins rapidly; progresses rapidly and recovery occurs rapidly). If the disease is prolonged; onset, duration or recovery, it is considered _________ . A chronic disease may begin quickly but then not recover quickly. Factors necessary for an infection to develop : For an infection to develop: 1. The microorganism must be able to get into the body 2. It must be __________ than the host tissue and 3. It must be able to _________ the host tissue. Transient vs. resident microorganisms The type of a microorganism that comes from outside the body to cause a disease process is called a __________ microorganism. It is the microbe that is normally not part of the human body. Under normal circumstances, the microorganisms present in the body do not cause any disease. These microorganisms are called __________ microorganisms. (i.e. normal oral flora) Inflammatory process 1 Once the microorganism is inside the body, it begins to multiply and cause disease The body often responds to the infection by way of the _____________ process. The symptoms of inflammation are: _________ , redness, ______ , pain and loss of function. These symptoms are designed to prevent the propagation of the disease process. If the body wins the battle against the invading pathogens, then the infection is ____________ . The Disease Process: The course of any disease can be divided into four main stages: 1. Incubation 2 ___________ 3. Acute 4. Resolution Incubation _____________ is the time period from the pathogens entry into the body until symptoms appear. (The microorganism is becoming established, growing and multiplying in this stage) ____________ period is the time no signs or symptoms have become evident. The latent period during incubation may be short (hours - as in food poisoning) or long (years - as in hepatitis) The growth rate of the microbe, the environment, the strength of the immune system, the nature of the particular disease process are all involved in determining how long the latent period may last....
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- Spring '05