Micro Lesson 8 Oral microbiology

Micro Lesson 8 Oral microbiology - Oral Microbiology:...

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Oral Microbiology: Caries, periodontal disease and other oral infections DEA 1135 Introduction to Microbiology
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Development of Oral Microflora Oral cavity usually sterile at birth Number of organisms increases 8 hours after birth At 12 months most children have several types of oral microorganisms By preschool age, oral flora resembles flora of adult
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Years of dental research in the area of plaque has resulted  in the “Specific Plaque Hypothesis”. This hypothesis states  that the composition of bacterial plaque at healthy sites  differs from plaque at diseased sites.  Using our knowledge of bacterial nomenclature and  classification we can now examine those bacteria implicated  in oral infection, specifically periodontal disease and caries . Dental Plaque in Disease Etiology:
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Plaque Plaque is a group of microbes that stick to the tooth surface . It's defined as the soft deposits that form the biofilm adhering to the tooth surface or other hard surfaces in the oral cavity . Plaque is composed mostly of microorganisms, approximately 325 different bacterial species, as well as fungus, viruses, yeasts and protozoa In order for plaque to form it must have a form of energy. The energy used are sugars which is known to be metabolized to lactic acid, which acts as the demineralizing agent in dental caries. As the glucose is metabolized to the lactic acid, the cell transforms the glucose to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), heat and lactic acid. It is these materials in the plaque that cause decalcification and cavitation of tooth structure.
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It is formed readily on tooth surfaces after 1-2 days with no oral hygiene measures. It typically forms on the gingival 1/3 of the tooth surface and in cracks, pits and fissures. Early forming microorganisms are gram + aerobes but as the film develops, there is a transition to a gram - anaerobic environment. Initial colonizers are Actinomyces viscous and Streptococcus sanguis . Dental plaque plays a major role in dental caries.
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As the plaque continues to build, it begins to harden in response to  minerals in the saliva. This is termed calculus.  Calculus is non-living, it has no viable cells within it, it’s usually hard  and crusty.  Because it forms near the gingival margin, it tends to harbor  more plaque and act like a ledge under which food and microorganisms  can hide.  As you can see from these 2 slides, if it isn’t removed in a timely  manner, it only grows, accumulating more stains and calculus
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Calculus is calcifying mass that forms on the surface of natural teeth and dental prostheses consisting of mineralized bacterial plaque. It can be classified as
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Micro Lesson 8 Oral microbiology - Oral Microbiology:...

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