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PHGY 210 - Endocrinology

PHGY 210 - Endocrinology - 1 January 5 2011 11:48 AM...

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Neuroconduction Endorcine system : communication and hormone *The hypothalamus is neuronal and produces a hormone that interacts with specific cell types in the pituitary which responds by releasing its own hormones Paracrine: One cell communicate with one or more adjacent cells without really fully entering the circulation. They can be of the same or of different cell type from each other. Autocrine: when the cell "talks" to itself. It produces a receptor to its own products and it responds accordingly. Short distance signaling *Each step is a potential side of regulation Hormone A --->receptor ---> Hormone B SYNTHESIS: regulated by upstream physiological signals RELEASE: controlled and critical TRANSPORT: peptide hormones don't travel in the blood stream on their own. There are binding proteins to help. Vitamin D is bound to DBP (vitamin D Binding Protein) DETECTION : vaste majority of hormones can't penetrate cells. Only lipid soluble hormones (steroids, vitamin D, etc…) look like membrane components and are able to pass. RESPONSE : change in cellular metabolism the binding has an effect on the cell. Ex: shape change REMOVAL: of the hormone. Physical or metabolic (deactivation) removal. 6 steps of hormone communication Hypothalamus Pituitary (anterior and posterior) Thyroid Parathyroid (not like thyroid) Adrenal (can be directly controlled by the hypothalamus) Pancreas Ovaries and Testes Heart (new) Classical endocrine organs --> HPx axis ex: HPA = hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal axis *Hypothalamus and pituitary can be considered as one, but physiologically quite different. The hypothalamus is neuronal whereas the (ant.) pituitary has non-neuronal cells. Hypothalamic-Pituitary signaling 1 - January 5 2011 June 22, 2011 11:48 AM Endocrinology Page 1
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The hypothalamus is neuronal whereas the (ant.) pituitary has non-neuronal cells. *They (the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary) are connected by the HYPOTHALAMIC-HYPOPHOSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM. *The hypothalamic neurohormone either ACTIVATES (releasing factors) or INACTIVATES (inhibiting factors) one of the 6 types of hormone producing cells in the pituitary. *** Glygoproteins: TSH & "fertility" cycle hormones *** Polypeptide: -in, -on *** Steroids: -one, -iol, vitamine D *** Amine: -ine --> the structure of the hormone doesn't tell you what type of receptor it interacts with not the physiology (response) --> ionic Ca 2+ can act as a hormone --> protein hormones have genes to be able to be transcribed. Non-protein hormones are biosynthesized by enzymes Ribosome: PRE pro hormone 1) RER: pro hormone 2) Golgi: hormone + other proteins 3) Vesicle: strage 4) Membrane : co-release 5) -->PRE and pro are regions on the premature hormone that will be taken off to make a mature hormone. --> Steroids hare a common 4-ring structure. Cholesterol is particular, because it has a long side chain compared to the rest of the steroids --> Testosterone can be converted to estradiol by an enzyme called AROMATASE, which takes off the extra methyl group.
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PHGY 210 - Endocrinology - 1 January 5 2011 11:48 AM...

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