PSYCHfinalreview - *Psychology Final Review review of...

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**************Psychology Final Review************** review of chapters 1,2,4,6,7,8,10 ************************Chapter 1:********************** Intro to Psychology: I: Key Points and Ideas: Psychologists employ scientific methods to understand how humans and other animals think, feel, and act. Most psychologists are probabilistic determinists , meaning they believe that psychological phenomena occur with a regularity that is not random and can be r easonably understood using scientific methods. Wilhelm Wundt –*identified as the world's first psychologist*–developed structuralism , which sought to identify the components of the conscious mind. William James and functionalism studied how the conscious mind helps humans survive and successfully adapt to their environment (how the mind "functions"). Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis studied how the unconscious mind shapes behavior. John Watson and behaviorism considered only observable behaviors to be legitimate topics for scientific inquiry. Max Wertheimer and Gestalt psychology studied how the mind actively organizes stimuli into coherent wholes. Despite discrimination, many women and ethnic minorities made valuable contributions to the development of psychology. Of the five early schools of psychology, only psychoanalysis and behaviorism have survived as contemporary perspectives. The humanistic perspective ( Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow developed in opposition to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and it emphasizes human beings' capacity for personal growth and their ability to consciously make choices. The cognitive perspective attempts to understand behavior by studying how the mind organizes perceptions, processes information, and interprets experiences. The neuroscience perspective attempts to understand behavior by examining physiological processes, especially those occurring in the brain. The evolutionary perspective assumes that all species have evolved in ways that maximize the chances of their genes being passed on to their offspring. The sociocultural perspective emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior. Seven primary areas of specialization for research psychologists include the following: psychobiology, developmental psychology, experimental psychology, comparative psychology, cognitive psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. Four primary areas of specialization for applied psychologists include the following: clinical psychology, counseling psychology, industrial/organizational psychology, and educational and school psychology. Areas of specialization for psychologists:
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1. Psychobiology (also called  behavioral neuroscience, biopsychology, physiological psychology )–Studies behavior by examining physiological  processes, especially those occurring in the brain. Psychobiologists are  increasingly investigating the genetic bases of thought and action. 2.
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PSYCHfinalreview - *Psychology Final Review review of...

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