ByzantineHistory - Byzantine Empire (330-1453) Definition...

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Byzantine Empire (330-1453)
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Definition Byzantine: this term is a modern invention. The Byzantines called themselves either ‘Romans’ or ‘Greeks’. Invented by the classical scholar Hieronymus Wolf and popularized by Montesquieu It was used for the medieval Greek-speaking, Christian empire that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The ancient Greek city of Byzantium was founded in 667 BC by king Byzas. In antiquity, because of its strategic location, it was an important center for the transport of corn to Attica.
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Diocletian’s Empire
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The origins 292: Diocletian divides the Roman empire into two. 324: Constantine reunites the two parts 330: Constantine builds a new capital in the location of ancient Byzantium 337: The death of Constantine results in division between east and west.
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Constantinople Successive emperors build strong walls, palaces, churches, gardens, aquaducts and made the city the biggest, strongest and most enlightened city of medieval Christendom The Walls of Theodosius
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Cistern Basilica
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The early years 337: Constantius II, succeeds Constantine East and West divided again, permanently. 361: Julian tries to revert to paganism. 379-95: Theodosius I Christianity obligatory 396: Prohibition of Olympic Games Hippodrome
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The Fall of Rome Barbarian tribes keep pushing into a fragmented and weakened Roman Empire. The east through bribery, diplomacy and better military resists effectively 476: Rome Falls 491: Anastasius I: His competent rule reorganizes the east. Financial strength and administative success. The Last Legion
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The Age of Justinian (527-75) Procopius, Histories 532 The Nica revolt 536: Reconquest of Rome and much of Italy took many years. North Africa and the Spanish coast were easily conquered. Victories over Sassanid Persia in the east consolidate the borders
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Hagia Sophia, Church of the Holy Wisdom, 6th c.
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Justinian’s legacy Hagia Sophia remained the seat of Eastern Christianity until the Fall of Constantinople. 552: Byzantine monks sneak silkworms and mulbery out of China. Justinian orders the codification of Roman law ( Corpus Iuris Civilis ). He was heavy-handed towards heresies In 529 he closed the philosophical school of Athens, thus destroying the last stronghold of paganism.
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The Byzantine empire in 565, at its largest expansion ever.
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The Struggle with the Persians Procopius is a rich source for the campaigns in the east. Justinian and his successors were locked into a titanic struggle with an old enemy and won. 627: Heraclios crushes the Persians at Nineveh. However, both Byzantines and Persians were exhausted and vulnerable to the Arabs and Islam.
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Heraclius 610-641 Heraclius seized the throne from unpopopular Phocas He defeated Chosroes and the Persians Recovered many Byzantine territories Hellenized the empire Took the title basileus
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Heraclius fighting Chosroes over the True Cross
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This note was uploaded on 08/23/2011 for the course CLA 3504 taught by Professor Kapparis during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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ByzantineHistory - Byzantine Empire (330-1453) Definition...

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