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Sparta - EARLY SPARTA l A city of Dot-tans situated in...

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Unformatted text preview: EARLY SPARTA l. A city of Dot-tans. situated in Lakonia [south-east Peloponnese]. The city was sometimes called Lakedaimon. and the population as a whole was called the Lakedaimonians. 2. Social classes: {a} Spartiates [citizens]. [b] Period-cot {meaning "dwellers around"}. [e] Helots [slaves]. 3. Constitution: (a) Two kings. of the Agiad and Euryponticl families. {bl Council or senate of thirty elders. to) Assembly of all citizens. [d] Later [perhaps from the late 8th century BC) there were also five ephors, appointed annually. 4. Way of life: {a} Weak babies were exposed on mount Taygetos. {b} Spartiate boys from the age of seven lived in a large school and were trained in military discipline and endurance. From twenty to thirty a man was an siren. in charge of the boys‘ training. At thirty he became a full citizen. but still spent his day with the other men. {cl Spartiate girls also had a rigorous upbringing. {dl Luxuries were forbidden. Communicaan with foreigners was discouraged. (cl Work was done by the Helots. Some fanning, trading. and manufacturing was done by the pea-infirm. This system was later attributed to Lyltourgos. According to Greek tradition he lived about the 9th century, but modern scholars generally date the introduction of the system in the 7th century. Xenophon: A brief biography An Athenian, the son of Ciryllns, Xenophon was born about 444 BCE. to his early life he was a pupil of Socrates; but the turning point in his career came when he decided to serve in the Greek Contingent raised by Cyrus against Ariaxerxes in 40]. Xenophon himself mentions the circumstances under which he joined this army (Anah. 3:1). Proxenus, a friend of Xenophon, was already with Cyrus, and he invited Xenophon to come to Sardis, and promised to introduce him to the Persian prince. He accompanied Cyms into Upper Asia. In the battle of Cunaxa {401 BCE) Cyrus lost his life, his barbarian troops were dispersed. and the Greeks were left alone on the wide plains between the Tigris and the Euphrates. Xenophon was elected one of the generals, and took the principal part in conducting the Greeks in their memorable retreat along the Ti gris over the high table-lands of Armenia to Trapcms {Trebizond) on the Black Sea. in other ways also he showed himself the protoiype of an adventurous leader of eondom'eri, with no ties of country or preference of nationality. He formed a scheme for establishing a town wilh the Ten Thousand on the shores of the Euxinc; but it fell through. He joined the Spartans, as has been seen, and he continued in their service even when they were at war with Athens. Agesilaus, the Spartan, was commanding the Lacedacrnonizm forces in Asia against the Persians in 396, and Xenophon was with him at least during part of the campaign. When Agcsilaus was recalled (394), Xenophon accompanied him, and he was on the side of the Lacedaemonians in the battle which they fought at Comma (394} against the Athenians As a natural consequence a decree of exile was passed against him at Athens. It seems that he went to Sparta wilh Agcsilaus alter the battle of Coronea, and soon after he settled at Seillus in Elis, not far from Olympia, a spot or which he has given a description in the Annbmfs. Here he was joined by his wife, Philesia, and his children. His children were educated in Sparta. Xenophon was now a Lacedaernonian so far as he could become one. His time during his long residence at Scillus was employed in hunting, writing, and entertaining his friends; and perhaps the Anabcuis and part of the Hell'vmt'o were composed here The treatise on hunting and that on the horse were probably also written during this time, when amusement and exercise of this kind formed part of his occupation. On the downihll of the Spartan Supremacy. at Lcuctra in 37], Xenophon was at last expelled from his quite retreat at Scillus by the Eleins, aficr remaining there allow twenty years. Th3 sentence 0f banishment from Athens was repealed on the motion of Eubulus, but it is uncertain in what year. There is no ciidcnce that Xenophon or or returned to Athens. He is said to have retired to Corinth afler his expulsion from Seillus, and as we know nothing more, we assume that he died there some time around 35?, ...
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