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THE PERSIAN WARS[1] - IV Persia's 2nd Invasion of Greece...

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THE PERSIAN WARS 1. BACKGROUND : A. Growth of Ionia B. Persian Expansion *C. Miletos 499 B.C. --revolt against Persia, led by tyrant Aristagoras 1. Miletos asks Greeks for aid : Sparta demures 2. Athens sends 20 ships; Eretria sends 5 ships 3. Greeks burn Sardis D. Darius vows revenge/punishment of Greece (esp. Athens & Eretria) II. PERSIA INVADES GREECE 490 B.C. – (FAILED ATTEMPT 492 B.C.) A. Marathon 490 B.C. --Athens faces Persian fleet 1. Pheidippides runs to Sparta (for aid) in vain. 2. Greek winning strategy--Miltiades' plan; Themistokles & Miltiades convince Kallimachos (Kallimachos' vow, death) B. Results : 1. Persia backs off 2. Athens a "leader" Ill. Themistokles' crucial role at Athens, 489-480 B.C.- A. Themistokles foresaw Persia's return B. Themistokles builds Athens' navy w/Laurion silver (new mine, 483 B.C. *he persuaded Athenians)
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Unformatted text preview: IV. Persia's 2nd Invasion of Greece, 480 B.C. (Xerxes ) A. Xerxes' massive military force: size, composition, strategy--land & sea--B. Themistokles' successful anti-Persian strategy: 1. Delay Persian army (land)--Spartans at Thermopylai (King Leonidas) 2. Delay Persian navy (sea at Artemesium) to evacuate Athens 3. Force naval battle in Salamis Straits--(Greek advantage) C. Final Persian Defeats-479 B.C.: 1. Plataia (Boiotia) --land battle: Spartans (K. Pausanias) defeat Persians (Mardonious killed). 2. Mykalē (Ionia) sea battle: Greeks win! V. Results of Persian Wars A. Athens = biggest winner -new confidence & origin of Empire B. Sparta --imp. power, but loses prestige to Athens. 1. Pausanias'disgrace 2. Sparta still isolationist – 3. Athens becomes de facto leader of Greeks...
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