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Unformatted text preview: 5/25/10 ANT2 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Prof. Sawyer May 25, 2010 Globalization and Social Justice Economic Globalization is controversial –  Proponents= unfettered international free market allows poor countries and citizens to develop economically and raise standards of living. –  Opponents= unfettered international free market benefits multinational corporations at expense of local enterprises and common people. Consider contrasts…. (UNDP Human Development Report 2005) –  In midst of increasingly prosperous global economy in 2003,  10.7 million children/year do not live to 5th birthday  more than 1 billion people survive on less than $1/day  18 countries (460 million people) registered lower scores on human development index (HDI) than in 1990--an unprecedented reversal. •  Global integration is forging deeper interconnections between countries.  economic terms= space between people and countries is shrinking rapidly, as trade, technology and investment link all countries in a web of interdependence.  human development terms= space between countries is marked by deep and (in some cases) widening inequalities in income and life chance. 1 5/25/10 (UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008)   One fifth of humanity –  live in countries where many don’t think twice of spending $3/day on latte/cappuccino.   One fifth of humanity –  survive on less than $1 a day and live in countries where children die for want of anti-mosquito bed-nets.   40% of the world’s population (2.5 billion pp) –  living on less than $2 a day –  account for 5% of global income.   The richest 10% (almost all living in high-income countries) –  accounts for 54%. UNDP Human Development Report 1998 & 1999 •  assets of three top billionaires in world = more than combined GNP of all least developed countries and their 600 million people. •  225 of world's richest billionaires have a combined wealth equal to the poorest 47 percent of humankind. [1/3 planet’s population = living on less than $1/day. 50% planet’s population = living on less than $2/day] What is Globalization? David Held, et al (1999) –  “a widening, deepening, and speeding up of worldwide interconnections in all aspects of life.” Ferguson (1999) –  “not simply process that links together world, but also one that differentiates it. –  creates new inequalities even as it brings into being new commonalities and lines of communication. –  creates new, up-to-date ways not only of connecting places but of bypassing and ignoring them.” –  Implies DISCONNECTION 2 5/25/10 Condition of Zambia: •  Disconnection and Abjection –  Being thrown aside, expelled, discarded, debased, humiliated •  Both imply an active relation •  The state of being disconnected or abject is the product of specific structures and processes. Zambian CopperBelt •  Signaled: –  Industrialization, modernization, development, economic prosperity –  Copper wires = connection •  (electricity, telephones, communication) –  Techno change with fiber optics & satellites •  Communication revolution thought to be connecting the globe is actually disconnecting Zambia   Imploding of “industrial revolution” in Zambia reveals more than down side of global capitalism •  Points to how our contemporary system of spatialized global inequality depends on the configurations of membership, exclusion, and abjection. 3 5/25/10 Global economy •  “flexibility of investment and market options is matched by a wholly new flexibility in disinvestment and abandonment” (Neil Smith 1987). •  Makes global “redlining” possible and makes implosion of Zambian copper industry as integral a part of globalization as McDonalds in Delhi. Question Ferguson poses: •  “How can we acknowledge the historical and ethical obligations of connectedness, responsibility, and, indeed, guilt that link Western wealth and security with African poverty and insecurity in an era when the modernist grid of universal copper connectivity has begun to disintegrate?” 4 ...
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