Rizzo lect 7 _ 8

Rizzo lect 7 _ 8 - Tree of Life image 2007 Tree of Life Web...

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Tree of Life image © 2007 Tree of Life Web Project.
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Microsporidia characteristics Intracellular parasite Infect arthropods, vertebrates No mitochondria Nucleus Makes spores to allow for dormancy outside of a host ~1500 named species
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Microsporidia
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Microbial Eukaryotes What are microsporidia?
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Microbial Eukaryotes 1 2 3 4 5 Intracellular parasite Infect arthropods, vertebrates No mitochondria Nucleus Makes spores to allow for dormancy outside of a host ~1500 named species What are microsporidia?
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Microbial Eukaryotes 1 2 3 4 5 Intracellular parasite Infect arthropods, vertebrates No mitochondria Nucleus Makes spores to allow for dormancy outside of a host ~1500 named species What are microsporidia?
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adapted from Baldauf, et al., in Assembling the Tree of Life, 2004
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What are Homologous Characters? 1. Similar characters that evolved independently. 2. Characters that are present in organisms because they shared a common ancestor. 3. Two structures with the same morphology where this morphology was not inherited from a common ancestor. 4. A character that is the product of a reversal of state.
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The Microbe Problem(s) What traits to use? Some traits not clear if homologous ± Morphology for example Many taxa are unculturable Other traits of limited utility ± Nucleus presence / absence ± Does not resolve relationships within groups Universal homologies ± Do not meet requirements for phylogenetically informative traits
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Universal homologies: examples Molecular and cellular features ± Use of DNA as a genetic material ± Use of ACTG in DNA ± Use of ACUG in RNA ± Three letter genetic code ± Central dogma (DNA -> RNA -> protein) ± Lipoprotein cell envelope ± 20 core amino acids in proteins Specific complexes and genes ± Ribosomal proteins and RNA ± RNA polymerase proteins
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Universal homologies: examples Data matrix for universal homologies Organism DNA Three letter code DNA-> RNA-> protein E. coli ++ + Methanococcus + Yeast + + + Humans + + +
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Woese 1987 - rRNA Microbiological Reviews 51:221
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rRNA and the tree of life 1. Conserved function 2. All regions of rRNA evolve at equal rates 3. Structure of rRNA is highly variable which leads to more phylogenetic characters 4. Structure of rRNA is highly conserved, which helps
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Rizzo lect 7 _ 8 - Tree of Life image 2007 Tree of Life Web...

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