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Unit2 - Unit 2 Unit Diversity in Healthcare It is because...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 2 Unit Diversity in Healthcare It is because we are different that each of us is special. each The overwhelming question facing the The United States during the 21st century is how this country will accommodate increasing cultural diversity. increasing Diversity in Health Care Diversity By • By the year 2050, it is expected that: The – The non-Hispanic white population will decrease from 70 percent to 50 percent of the total population. The – The Hispanic population will increase from 12.5 percent to 25 percent. The – The Asian population will increase from 3 percent to 8 percent. The – The African American population will increase from 12 percent to 14 percent from What is Diversity? What Diversity is defined as “the full range of Diversity human similarities and differences in group affiliation including gender, race/ethnicity, social class, role within an organization, age, religion, sexual orientation, physical ability, and other group identities.” (Dreachslin, 1998) (Dreachslin, Four Layers of Diversity Four Resident Population Estimates by Race by July 1, 1997* July 1, 2000* July 1, 2050** All Races 267,784 (100%) 275,306 (100%) 403,686 (100%) White 194,746 (72.7%) 196,669 (71.4%) 212,990 (52.8%) Hispanic 29,182 (10.9%) 32,478 (11.8%) 98,228 (24.3%) Black 32,339 (12.1%) 33,490 (12.2%) 53,466 (13.2%) 9,537 (3.6%) 10,619 (3.9%) 35,759 (8.9%) 1,979 (0.7%) 2,047 (0.7%) 3,241 (0.8%) Asian Americans / Pacific Islanders American Indian (Numbers in millions) * Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics 2000. Populations Estimates Program. May, 2001 ** Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Projections of the Resident Population by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Nativity: Middle Series, 2050 to 2070. Populations Projections Program. January 13, 2000 Changing U.S. Demographics Changing • Ethnic and racial composition of America Gender • Gender and education levels by age groups groups • Aging of the population Aging of the Population Aging Older • Older adults represent the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. segment In • In 2003, nearly 36 million Americans were age 65 and older. By 2050, that number will grow to almost 87 million. almost The • The oldest segment of the population (85+) grew from just 100,000 in 1900 to 4.2 million in 2000. from The • The 85+ segment of the population is projected to grow from 4.2 million in 2000 to nearly 21 million in 2050. in What is Culture? What Culture’ • ‘Culture’ refers to integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious or social groups. racial, Aspects of Culture that Affect Health Health Language Urban/Rural Race/Ethnicity Occupation Ability/Disability Religion/Spirituality Socio-Economic Status Health Status Gender Sexual Orientation Culture of Western Medicine Culture • Dominance over nature • Activism • Timeliness • Therapeutic aggressiveness • Future orientation • Standardization What is Cultural Competency? Competency? A set of congruent behaviors, practices, attitudes and set policies that come together in a system, agency or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. ‘Competence’ implies having the capacity to function Competence’ effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors and needs presented by consumers and their communities. presented (HHS Office of Minority Health, 1999) (HHS Definition of Cultural Competency Competency Is • Is the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to respectfully effectively members of all cultures, races, classes, ethnic religious backgrounds and social groups in a manner that recognizes, affirms and values the cultural similarities and differences and their worth. and (Jezewski, 2001) Implications for the Healthcare Industry Healthcare Need • Need to be “cultural competent” to serve diverse patient populations diverse Increase • Increase need of health services as the population continues to age Lack • Lack of younger and diverse workers entering healthcare professions entering Lack • Lack of women and other minorities in healthcare leadership roles healthcare Why is Cultural Competence Important? Important? • Existing Differences • Existing Disparities Link • Link Between Disparities and Cultural Competency Competency Need for Cultural Competence Need Respond • Respond to current and projected demographic changes in the United States changes Reduce • Reduce long-standing disparities in the physical and mental health - status of people from differing racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds ethnic Improve • Improve the quality of services and primary care outcomes Comply • Comply with legislative, regulatory and accreditation mandates mandates National the Cultural Competence. 2003. • Creation of a competitive edge in Center formarket place Health Disparities & Culture Health How does culture make a difference? Because • Because minorities are underrepresented among health professionals among Patients • Patients and providers often have different cultural backgrounds. In • In these instances, language, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity may influence the provision of health services. Culturally Effective Pediatric Care, American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Workforce, 1997–1998 Cultural Competency Workforce Cultural Diversity Management Diversity Diversity management is defined as “a Diversity strategically driven process whose emphasis is on building skills and creating policies that will address the changing demographics of the workforce and patient population.” population.” (Svehla, 1994; Weech-Maldonado, et al. 2002). What can you do? What Understand • Understand that different perspectives, values and beliefs exist. values Work • Work to overcome language and cultural barriers. barriers. Become • Become familiar with the issues and challenges being faced by patients of other cultures. cultures. Think • Think about the individual - work to build trust. trust. Develop a greater sense of curiosity and Understand different Beliefs and Bias Understand • • • • • • • • • • • • Gay/lesbian Those in poverty Racial/ethnic minorities Religious/Spiritual minorities Persons with disabilities Patients with HIV/AIDS Children Older adults Cultural minorities (e.g., Amish, Appalachian) Military culture Migrant workers/homeless/displaced persons Persons with mental illness What is an Attitude? What An attitude is a mind set or tendency to act in a particular way due to both an individual’s experience and temperament. individual’s Tri-Component Model of Attitudes Tri-Component Actions Feelings Beliefs Our goals... Our Watch: http • Watch: http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/? id=4696315n To • To open our minds and our hearts and teach others the context and skills for providing culturally effective health care providing To • To treat every encounter as a cross-cultural encounter. encounter. Because… • Because… In the end, it’s not what we don’t know that will destroy us but rather the failure to respond appropriately to what we ...
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