unit3-1 - What is an Attitude An attitude is a mind set or...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/3/2009 What is an Attitude? An attitude is a mind set or tendency to act in a particular way due to both an individual experience and temperament individual’s experience and temperament. Unit 3: Attitudes, Perceptions and Communication TriTri-Component Model of Attitudes Any inconsistency that a person perceives between two or more of one’s attitudes or between one behavior and attitudes between one’s behavior and attitudes. Actions Feelings Beliefs How are Attitudes Formed? • Learned • Modeling • Experiences Cognitive Dissonance Changing Attitudes • Address the cognitive and emotional components • Provide new information Changing someone’s attitudes takes time, effort and determination! 1 2/3/2009 Perception Perception Process Perception is the process by which individuals interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world experience of the world. An individual’s perception is his/her reality! Attribution Theory Social Perception How an individual “sees” others and how others perceive an individual. • Halo effect • Contrast effect • Projection • Stereotyping • Pygmalion effect • Impression management Employee Selection Identify key invariant qualities of individuals that match up well with the demands of the position and the culture of the organization. • Skills • Character • Motivation • Attitude • Leadership potential • Personality MyersMyers-Briggs Type Indicator • The Basic Model – – 2 Kinds of Mental Processes – 2 Kinds of Mental Orientations • First Letter: E or I – Which is your most favored Energy Source? • Second Letter: S or N – Which your most favored Perceiving Mental Process? • Third Letter: T or F – Which is your most favored Judging Mental Process? • Fourth Letter: J or P – Which kind of mental process leads your Outside World Orientation? 2 2/3/2009 16 Personality Types • “Whatever the circumstances of your life, the understanding of type can make your perceptions clearer, your judgments sounder and your life closer to your heart sounder and your life closer to your heart’s desire” desire” Isabel Briggs Myers ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ MBTI - Energy Orientation MBTI - Energy Orientation • Those who prefer Introversion draw their primary Introversion energy from the inner world of information, thoughts, ideas, and other reflections. • When circumstances require an excessive amount of attention spent in the "outside" world, those preferring Introversion find the need to retreat to a more private setting as if to recharge their drained batteries. • Those who prefer Extraversion are drawn to the Extraversion outside world as their elemental source of energy. Rarely, if ever, do extraverted preference people feel their energy batteries are "drained" "drained" by excessive amounts of interaction with the outside world. They must engage the things, people, places and activities going on in the outside world for their life force. MBTI – Perceive MBTI - Judgments • Those who prefer Sensing Perception favor Sensing clear, tangible data and information that fits in well with their direct here-and-now experience. here-and• In contrast, those who prefer Intuition Perception co In are drawn to information that is more abstract, conceptual, big-picture, and represents bigimaginative possibilities for the future. • Those who prefer Thinking Judgment have a Thinking natural preference for making decisions in an objective, logical, and analytical manner with an emphasis on tasks and results to be accomplished. accomplished. • Those whose preference is for Feeling Feeling Judgment make their decisions in a somewhat global, visceral, harmony and value-oriented valueway, paying particular attention to the impact of decisions and actions on other people. 3 2/3/2009 MBTI - Mental Preferences • Those who prefer Judging rely upon either their Judging T or F preference to manage their outer life. This typically leads to a style oriented towards closure, organization, planning, or in some fashion managing the things and or people fashion managing the things and or people found found in the external environment. • The drive is to order the outside world. While some people employ an assertive manner, others "ordering touch" - with respect to people may be light. MBTI MBTI - Mental Preferences • Those who prefer Perceiving rely upon Perceiving either their S or N preference to run their outer life. This typically results in an open, adaptable flexible style of relating to the adaptable, flexible style of relating to the things things and people found in the outside world. The drive is to experience the outside world rather than order it; in general lack of closure is easily tolerated. Communication • The creation or exchange of thoughts, ideas, emotions, and understanding between sender (s) and receiver (s). Process of Communication • Two forms of information are sent and received in communication: – Facts: Bits of information that can be objectively measured or described objectively measured or described. • Fundamental and vital to all healthcare functions. – Feelings: An individual’s emotional responses to decisions made or actions taken by other people. • Communication is successful when meaning is understood. Communication Process Feedback Feedback Any information that individuals receive about their behavior. • • • • One-way communication communication Two-way communication TwoDifferent forms of feedback Different levels of feedback Adapted from McShane, S. L. and Von Glinow, M. A. (2003) Organizational behavior: Emerging realities for the workplace revolution (2nd Ed) Boston: McGraw-Hill. 324. 4 2/3/2009 Forms of Feedback Levels of Feedback • Task or procedural • Descriptive • Relational • Evaluative • Individual • Prescriptive • Group Communication Channels Verbal: The encoding of messages into words, either written or spoken Effective Communication • Words are 7% effective • Tone of voice is 38% effective of voice is 38% effective Nonverbal: The encoding of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress. • Non-verbal clues are 55% effective Non• What you say is not nearly as important as HOW you say it. Communication Channels Barriers to Communication • Environmental Barriers are characteristic of the organization and its environmental setting. • Personal Barriers arise from the nature of individuals and their interaction with others. 5 2/3/2009 Overcoming Communication Barriers Effective Communication for Knowledge Management 1. Attention is given to messages and adequate time is devoted to listening. 2. Management philosophy encouraging the free flow of communication. 3. Reducing the number of “links” between sender th “li and receiver. 4. Tailoring words and symbols so messages are understandable. 5. Using multiple channels to reinforce complex messages. Strategic Communication Strategic communication is an intentional process of presenting ideas in a clear, concise and persuasive way. • • • • • Outcome Context Messages Tactical reinforcement Feedback Communication Networks A communication network is the interaction pattern between and among group members. • Centralized – Chain pattern – Y-pattern – Wheel pattern – Circle pattern • Decentralized - All-channel pattern All- Flows of Intraorganizational Communication • Upward • Downward • Horizontal • Diagonal Informal Communication The corporate grapevine is an unstructured and informal network founded on social relationships rather than organizational charts or job descriptions organizational charts or job descriptions. • • • • Single strand Gossip Probability Cluster 6 2/3/2009 CrossCross-Cultural Communication Communication difficulties arise from differences in cultural values, languages, and and points of view. Communicating with External Stakeholders • • • • Communication competence Assessing macro- and microenvironments macroMonitoring activities of stakeholders Boundary spanning Diversity of External Stakeholders 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/21/2011 for the course AHS 401 taught by Professor Paustian during the Spring '11 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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