unit4-1 - What is Motivation Motivation is the...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/10/2009 What is Motivation? Motivation is the psychological process through which unsatisfied needs or wants lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives. Unit 4 Theories of Motivation: Content, Process, and Attribution Content vs. Process Theories of Motivation • Content theories of motivation explain the specific factors that motivate people and answers the question “what drives behavior?” • Process theories of motivation helps explain how an individual’s behavior is energized, directed, sustained, and stopped. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Lack of evidence that workers have a single dominant need. • Lack of evidence that a need diminishes in strength when gratified. • Difficulty explaining individuals who neglect their lower level needs in pursuit of higher level needs (i.e., starving artist). Alderfer’s ERG Theory • Existence refers to an individual’s concern with basic material and physiological existence requirements. • Relatedness refers to the need for developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. • Growth refers to an individual’s intrinsic need to be creative and to make useful and productive contributions, including personal development with opportunities for personal growth. 1 2/10/2009 Alderfer vs. Maslow • Does not require a strict ordering of needs satisfaction. • Accounts for differences in need preferences by individuals. • Frustration‐regression principle. Herzberg’s Two‐Factor Theory Herzberg’s Two‐Factor Theory People have two sets of needs: 1. Avoidance of unpleasantness, and 2. Personal growth. Herzberg and Job Design Hackman and Oldman’s Job Characteristic Model Herzberg promoted the concept that if the work one does is significant, it will ultimately lead to satisfaction with the work itself. Employees will be motivated to do work that they perceive to be significant! 2 2/10/2009 McClelland’s 3‐Needs Theory Comparison of Content Theories of Motivation Three types of motivational needs: •Achievement (n‐Ach) •Power (n‐Pow) •Affiliation (n‐Aff) Expectancy (VIE) Theory Expectancy (VIE) Theory Expectancy Theory suggests that for any given situation, the level of a person’s motivation with respect to performance is dependent upon: 1. His/her desire for an outcome, 2. The individual’s performance is perceived to be related to obtaining other desired outcomes, and 3. The perceived probability that his or her efforts will lead to the required performance. Application of Expectancy Theory Equity Theory Equity Theory states that a person evaluates his or her outcomes and inputs by comparing them with those of others. 3 2/10/2009 Equity Theory When an inequity is perceived by an individual: 1. It creates tension within the person, 2. The tension is proportional to the degree of inequity, 3. The tension created within the individual motivates him/her to relieve it, and 4. The strength of the motivation to reduce the tension is proportional to the perceived inequity. Satisfaction‐Performance Theory Equity Theory Six methods of inequity resolution: 1. Altering inputs, 2. Altering outcomes, 3. Cognitively distorting inputs or outcomes (self), 4. Leaving the field, 5. Distort the inputs or outcomes of the comparison other, and 6. Changing the comparison other. Satisfaction‐Performance Motivation Model Satisfaction‐Performance Theory extends the Expectancy theory and incorporates the Equity Theory into a model to reflect the relationship of an employee’s performance to job satisfaction. Job Satisfaction results from (1) the performance itself, (2) the rewards for performance, and (3) the perceived equitability of those rewards. Goal‐Setting Theory Goal‐Setting Model Based on research, employees who are given specific, challenging goals outperform those who are given vague goals such as “do your best.” Three steps to follow: 1. Setting the goal (specific and measurable), 2. Obtaining goal commitment, and 3. Providing support elements. 4 2/10/2009 Reinforcement Theory Research suggests that an employee’s behavior will be repeated if it is associated with positive rewards and will not be repeated if it is associated with negative consequences. Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Theory Four types of reinforcement: 1. 2. 3. 4. Positive Negative Punishment Extinction What is Attribution Theory? A causal explanation for an event or behavior. The basic premises of Attribution Theory is to provide managers with a better understanding of the highly cognitive and psychological mechanisms that influence motivation levels. The Basic Premises of Attribution Theory: Attribution‐Emotion‐Behavior Process • It is used to provide managers with a better understanding of the highly cognitive and psychological mechanisms that influence motivation levels. • What is Attribution Theory? – It is a causal explanation for an event or behavior. 5 2/10/2009 Differences between optimistic, pessimistic, and hostile attribution styles Summary of Attribution Styles Optimistic attribution style: The tendency to attribute negative outcomes to external factors coupled with a tendency to attribute positive outcomes to internal factors. Insert Table 7‐1 Pessimistic attribution style: The tendency to attribute negative outcomes to internal factors coupled with a tendency to attribute positive outcomes to external factors. Hostile attribution style: Denotes a tendency toward external attributions for negative outcomes. Five Techniques Managers Use to Promote Motivational Attributions Attributions and Motivational States – Learned Helplessness – Aggression – Empowerment – Resilience • • • • • Screening for Resilience Attributional Training Immunization Increasing Psychological Closeness Multiple Raters of Performance 6 ...
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