unit5 - 2/17/2009 What is Power? Power Power is the ability...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/17/2009 What is Power? Power Power is the ability to influence the beliefs, emotions, and behaviors of people (Siu, emotions, Siu, 1979). 1979 Power exists only when there is an unequal Power relationship between two people and where one of the two is dependent upon the other (Emerson, 1962). (Emerson, Unit 5 Leadership  Power, Influence and Behavioral Theories Potential vs. Kinetic Power  Potential power is when an individual has the Potential ability ability to influence another individual.  Kinetic power is when the individual actually uses his/her power to influence another individual. individual. Other Sources of Power Other Within an Organization Within  Dependency  Coalitions  Delegated Sources of Power Five bases or sources of social power: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reward Coercive Legitimate Referent Expert Developing a Power Base  Create a sense of obligation  Building a reputation as an expert in a certain Building area area  Identification  Perceived dependence 1 2/17/2009 Organizational Politics Organizational politics are the intentional acts Organizational of influence to enhance or protect the self of interest of individuals or groups. interest Upward Influence Upward influence refers to employees  influence Upward tactics directed upward at those higher levels in the formal formal organization:  Ingratiation  Assertiveness  Rationality  Exchange  Upward appeal  Coalition formation Managers vs. Leaders Eight Types of Political Behavior 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Attacking or blaming others Using information as a political tool Creating and maintaining a favorable image Developing a base of support base of support Ingratiation/Praising others Developing allies and forming power coalitions Associating with influential people Creating obligations and reciprocity What is Leadership? Leadership can be described as a complex Leadership process by which a person sets direction and influences others to accomplish a mission, task or objective and directs the organization task, or objective, and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent coherent (Winder, 2003). Ten Commitments of Leadership Ten  A manager is a person who directs the work of employees and is responsible for results. employees  Search out challenging opportunities to change, Search grow, grow, innovate, and improve.  A leader inspires employees with a vision and helps them cope with change them cope with change.  Experiment, take risks, and learn from the Experiment, accompanying accompanying mistakes.  Envision an uplifting and ennobling future. Two separate behaviors but both very necessary for an Two organization organization to achieve its goals!  Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to Enlist their values, interests, hopes, and dreams. their  Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative Foster goals and building trust. goals 2 2/17/2009 Ten Commitments of Leadership  Strengthen people by giving power away, Strengthen providing choice, developing competence, assigning assigning critical tasks, and offering visible support.  Set the example by behaving in ways that are Set consistent with shared values consistent with shared values.  Achieve small wins that promote consistent Achieve progress progress and build commitment.  Recognize individual contributions to the success Recognize of of every project. Lewin s Behavioral Study One One of the earliest studies regarding the effect of leadership was performed in the 1930s under under the direction of Kurt Lewin. Three types of leadership styles were studied:  Authoritarian  Democratic  Laissez Faire Faire  Celebrate team accomplishments regularly. Great Person Theory Individuals are born with leadership traits. The attempt to identify personality The characteristics that appeared to differentiate leaders from followers leaders from followers. Trait Theory Common Characteristics       Trait Theory Ohio State Leadership Studies Intelligence Maturity Inner motivation High achievers achievers Employee centeredness Emotionally mature        Broad range of interest Honesty Integrity Self confidence confidence Cognitive ability Creative Flexibility 3 2/17/2009 University of Michigan Studies Blake and Mouton s Blake Managerial Managerial Grid Studies conducted to attempt to determine the Studies most most effective style of leadership:  Uses two axis:  An employee centered focus, or  A production centered focus centered  They both have a range of 0 to 9  Concern for people  Concern for task  The grid identifies four types of leaders: The  Authoritarian (9 on task, 1 on people) (9  Team Leader (9 on task, 9 on people) (9  Country Club (1 on task, 9 on people) (1  Impoverished (1 on task, 1 on people) Blake and Mouton s Blake Managerial Managerial Grid 4 ...
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