unit6 - Learning Objectives Gain a basic understanding of...

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Unformatted text preview: Learning Objectives Gain a basic understanding of the core technologies behind health health care information systems: Information Information Architecture and Technologies that Support Health Care Information Systems Systems System System software Data Data management Networks Networks and data communications Information Information processing distribution schemes Internet, Internet, intranets, and extranets Clinical Clinical and managerial decision support Discuss emerging trends in information technology (such as Discuss emerging trends in information technology (such as mobility, mobility, Web services, Internet, wireless). Identify some of the major issues in the adoption of information technologies technologies in health care organizations. Unit Unit 6 – Chapter 8 Discuss why it is important for a health care organization to adopt adopt an overall information systems architecture. . February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 2 Outline Core Technologies System System Software Data Data management and access Networks Networks and data communications Information Information processing distribution schemes Internet, Internet, intranets, and extranets Clinical Clinical and managerial decision support Trends Trends in user interactions with systems System System Architecture . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 3 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 4 1 System Software System Software A series of programs that carry out basic basic computing functions Operating Operating Systems Proprietary Proprietary Manage user interface, files and memor memory Operates Operates peripherals Allows development of applications without have to include basic computer computer instructions Windows Windows Mac Mac OS Open Open source Linux Linux . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 5 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 6 COMMON INTERFACE ENGINE OPERATION System Software Interface Engine— software Interface Engine—a software program designed to simplify the creation and management of interfaces interfaces between applications systems (Altis, applications (Altis, 2004) 2004) . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 7 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 8 2 Data Management and Access Data Management and Access Relational Relational Databases ObjectObject-oriented Database Relational Database Management System System (RDMS) Applications ave hree ayers Applications have three layers Object-oriented Object-oriented database management management system (OODBMS) Object Relational Object-Relational Database elational management management system (ORDBMS) Interface Interface Data Data manipulation Tables Tables . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 9 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS Data Management and Access Data Management and Access Data dictionaries—document Data dictionaries—document data definitions definitions Clinical Clinical data repositories—large repositories—large databases that include data from databases that include data from a variety of sources variety 10 Data Data Warehouse and Data Mart Non-relational Non-relational structure to facilitate “drill “drill down” retrieval Data mining—discovering patterns Data mining discovering patterns in in data . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 11 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 12 3 Networks Networks and Data Data Communications Network Network Communication protocols protocols Needed for communication among networked networked computers an devices Open Standards Interconnection (OSI) Network Network Communication protocols Network Network Types and Configurations Network Network Media and Bandwidths Network Network Communication Devices Seven Seven Layers Conceptual model, not a set of actual specifications specifications . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 13 Network Network Communication protocols protocols February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 14 OSI MODEL COMPARED TO THE INTERNET MODEL Internet Model—Transmission Internet Model—Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (TCP/IP) Layered Layered model Represents a set of actual protocol specifications specifications at each layer . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 15 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 16 4 Network Communication Protocols Other Other protocols Network Types & Configurations Local Area Network (LAN) vs. Wide Area Area Network (WAN) Ethernet— Ethernet—Local Area Networks Asynchronous Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)—fast (ATM)—fast transmission speeds transmission speeds Bluetooth— Bluetooth—wireless devices IEEE IEEE 802.11b & g (Wi-Fi)—popular for (Wi-Fi)—popular wireless wireless computers LAN—devices LAN—devices are under the control of one one organization in the same geographic geographic area WAN—an WAN—an network that extends beyond beyond a LAN . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 17 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 18 BUS & RING TOPOLOGIES Network Types & Configurations Topology Topology Physical Physical Topology Bus Bus Ring Star Star Logical Logical Topology Bus— Bus—Ethernet Ring— Ring—IBM Token Ring . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 19 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 20 5 ETHERNET NETWORK IN A PHYSICAL STAR PHYSICAL STAR TOPOLOGY . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 21 February February 9, 2011 Network Media Communications across WAN require require a service carrier Twisted pair wire (Category 1 – 5) Coaxial Coaxial cable (older) Fiber Fiber optic cable Microwave Microwave Spread Spread Spectrum Wireless Wireless February February 9, 2011 22 Network Media Common Common Types Terrestrial Terrestrial Satellite Satellite microwave Spread Spread spectrum AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS POTS POTS Leased line Leased line Integrated services digital network (ISDN) (ISDN) Purchased TPurchased T-1 (or other) line . AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 23 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 24 6 Let’s take a Break! Network Bandwidth Bandwidth = Capacity of the transmission transmission med1a Greater Greater capacity = greater speed Rates expressed as bits per second second (bps) . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 25 Network Communication Devices February February 9, 2011 Gateway—connects Gateway—connects networks with different protocols; operates at or above above the transport level Switch may be gateway or Switch—may be a gateway or a router; all switches rout data to their their destinations . AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 26 Network Communication Devices Hub—device Hub—device in which data from the network network come together Bridge—connects Bridge—connects networks at the data link layer; networks with the data link layer; networks with the same same protocols Router—operates Router—operates at the network layer; help determine the destination of of data February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 27 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 28 7 Distribution Schemes Internet Terminal Host—dumb Terminal to Host—dumb terminal interacts interacts with host computer File Server—application File Server—application and database are on one computer; user’s user’s computer gets data files from file file server Client/server—multiple Client/server—multiple servers with specialized functions; client runs application application & server has data Every computer or device has a unique Internet Protocol (IP) address address Use changed dramatically with the Use changed dramatically with the introduction of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) and the World Wide Web Web (www) . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 29 February February 9, 2011 Internet AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 30 Internet WWW WWW Other Other Protocols Uniform Uniform Resource Locator (URL) E-mail (smtp, pop3, imap) File File Transfer (ftp) Internet telephoning (VoIP) Internet telephoning (VoIP) Example-- http://www.josseybass.com Web Web Browser PlugPlug-ins Mark Mark up languages HTML HTML XML XML February February 9, 2011 . AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 31 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 32 8 Intranets & Extranets Web 2.0 Web Web 2.0 is a range of Web-based Web-based communities, services, and technologies, including social-networking sites, wikis, social-networking sites, wikis, blogs, and messaging capabilities. and The “2.0”reflects the view that this collection represents the second generation of Web technologies and capabilities. capabilities. Intranets Intranets Secure computer network that uses Internet technologies, but is internal to an an organization Extranets Extranets Similar to intranets, but includes business business partners or the organization . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 33 February 9, 2011 Decision Support AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 34 Decision Support Decision Support Systems (DSS) (DSS) Artificial Artificial Intelligence Three Three steps of Decision Making Intelligence Intelligence Design Design Choice Choice Problems are Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured SemiSemi-structured . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 35 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 36 9 Decision Support Decision Support System Transaction based systems use use for structured problems DSS is needed for semi and un un- structured problems problems Stand alone generally has three components components Data Data Management Module—database, Module—database, data warehouse, clinical data repository data warehouse clinical data repository Model Model Management Module—user Module—user selects selects model to be applied to problem Dialog Module— Dialog Module—the user interface (Oz, 2004) . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 37 February February 9, 2011 Artificial Intelligence Input Input Devices Output Output Devices External External Storage Devices Mobile Personal Computing Devices Devices Example: Google Example: Google Multiple Multiple types February February 9, 2011 . AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 38 User Interactions A branch of computer science that is devoted to emulating the human mind mind Expert Expert systems Natural Natural language processing Neural Neural networks Fuzzy Fuzzy logic AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 39 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 40 10 Input Devices Output Devices Standard— Standard—mouse & keyboard Other Other Computer Computer Monitor Printer Printer Speech Speech Trackball or trackpad Touch screens Touch screens Source data input devices, such as bar bar coding Document Document Imaging Speech Speech Recognition . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 41 External Storage Devices February February 9, 2011 42 Mobile Personal Computing Sequential Sequential Personal Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Pocket Pocket PCs Laptop Laptop computer Tablet computer & Pads Cellular Cellular phone combinations Magnetic Magnetic tape Direct Access Magnetic Magnetic disks Floppy disks Flo Zip Zip drives RAID RAID CDs CDs & DVDs Optical Optical tape Flash Flash memory . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 43 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 44 11 Information System Architecture Architecture Perspectives The coming together of an information system is guided by the IS IS architecture Consists of concepts, strategies, and principles Platforms are specific vendors and technologies technologies Infrastructure generally refers to networks networks and network applications Characteristics Characteristics and Capabilities Architecture ensures organizationally defined characteristics characteristics and capabilities Application Application Integration Best Best of Breed Monolithic Monolithic Visual Visual integration . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 45 . February February 9, 2011 Architecture AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 46 Summary System System Software Data Data Management and Access Networks and Data Communications Data Communications It is important for health care organizations to have thoughtful architecture discussions Network Network Communication protocols Network Network Types & Configurations Network Network Media & Bandwidth Network Network Communication Devices . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 47 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 48 12 Summary (cont.) Summary (cont.) Distribution Distribution Schemes Internet Internet Intranets Intranets & Extranets Decision Support Decision User User Interactions Input Input Devices Output Output Devices External Storage Devices External Storage Devices Mobile Mobile Personal Computing Decision Decision Support System Artificial Artificial Intelligence Information Information System Architecture . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS . 49 February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 50 Questions? . February February 9, 2011 AHS 435 - Survey of Clinical & Administrative Information Systems AHS 51 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/21/2011 for the course AHS 401 taught by Professor Paustian during the Spring '11 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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