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Ch 03 - Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832 1...

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Utilitarianism square6 Jeremy Bentham, rhombus6 1748-1832 2011/2/26 1
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Utilitarianism: Weighing Social Costs and Benefits square6 Utilitarianism = Consequential approach square6 A general term for any view that holds that actions and policies should be evaluated on the basis of the benefits 2011/2/26 2 and costs they will impose on society. square6 Utility=the inclusive term used to refer to any net benefits produced by an action.
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Utilitarianism: Weighing Social Costs and Benefits square6 Cost and benefit analysis = A type of analysis used to determine the desirability of investing in a project by figuring whether its present and future 2011/2/26 3 economic benefits outweigh its present and future economic costs.
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Example of Utilitarianism (1) square6 During 1900’s, Ford lost market share to Japanese companies making compact, fuel-efficient cars. square6 Rocky=president of Ford determined to 2011/2/26 4 regain Ford’s share by rapidly developing a new small car called “smart”. square6 Because “smart” is a rush project, styling considerations dictated engineering design to a greater degree than usual.
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Example of Utilitarianism (2) square6 Smart’s styling required that the gas tank be placed behind the rear axle, where it was more dangerous to being punctured in case of a rear-end collision. 2011/2/26 5 square6 When smart underwent the crash-tested, when struck from the rear at 20 miles per hour or more, the gas tank would sometimes rupture and gas would spray out into the passenger compartment.
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Example of Utilitarianism (3) square6 In a real accident, it may possibly burn any trapped occupants. square6 Rocky still went ahead with this design because 2011/2/26 6 rhombus6 The design met all the legal and government standards as regulations only required a gas tank remain intact in a rear- end collision of less than 20 miles per hour. rhombus6 Rocky felt that smart is comparable in safety to several other competitors rhombus6 According to the cost and benefit analysis, the costs of modifying smart would not be balanced by the benefits.
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Example of Utilitarianism (4) square6 In a real accident, it may possibly burn any trapped occupants. square6 Will you continue with the production of smart is you were 2011/2/26 7 Rocky?
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Example of Utilitarianism (5) square6 Rocky still went ahead with this design because rhombus6 The design met all the legal and government standards as regulations only required a gas tank remain intact in a rear-end collision of less than 20 2011/2/26 8 miles per hour. rhombus6 Rocky felt that smart is comparable in safety to several other competitors rhombus6 According to an internal cost and benefit analysis, the costs of modifying smart would not be balanced by the benefits.
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Example of Utilitarianism (6) square6 Cost and benefit analysis when considering the total effect on the society square6 Cost = $11(modifying cost per car) 2011/2/26 9 X12.5 million=$137 million square6 Benefit =180 deathsX$200,000+180 injuriesX$67,000+2100vehiclesX700 =$49.25million
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