Lecture 9 (2) - ECOS3008 LABOUR ECONOMICS Week 12 24 May...

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ECOS3008 LABOUR ECONOMICS Week 12: 24 May Topic 3(v) & Topic 4 (i)
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2 From Chapter 7: Historical pattern of labour force participation Dimensions of gender (in)equality Dimensions of disadvantage? LFPR patterns Sourced from various ABS data series. Pre-1978 is mainly Census data Post-1978 is from 6291.0.55.001 3(v): Gender Issues in the Labour Market
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3 Labour Force Participation Rates, 1933-1992 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1933 1947 1954 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1992 Year Married Women Other Females Adult Men
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4
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5 Figure 7.1: Unemployment Rates 1966 - 2010 Source: Figure 7.1 in R&W, updated from ABS 6202.0.55.001
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6 Figure 7.1 shows that: Female UR is more stable than the male UR. Female UR is traditionally higher than the male UR. the gap between the female rate and the male rate is actually larger during times of low unemployment than during times of high unemployment. why was this historical trend not observed in ‘90s? Re Figure 7.1
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7 Figure 7.1: Unemployment Rates 1978 - 2002 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 August (%) Male Female Source: extracted from Slide 5
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8 Figure 7.1: Unemployment Rates 1988 - 2010 Source: extracted from Slide 5
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9 Table 7.1: Alternative Measures of the UR(O) = official unemployment rate UR(D) = UR, including discouraged workers UR(M) = UR, including marginally attached 1993 2007 Measure of Unemployment Female Male Female Male UR(O) 10.1% 11.2% 4.6% 3.8% UR(D) 12.7% 11.9% 5.5% 4.3% UR(M) 23.7% 15.3% 14.2.% 8.3%
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10 Occupational and Industrial Segregation women heavily concentrated in a very small range of occupations and industries predominantly female occupations and industries are characteristically low-paying. May 1994 : clerical (30 per cent of all employed women), sales and services (25 per cent) May 2008: 48% of female employment is still in clerical/sales/services Decline is very steady - and slow!
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11 Has segregation been reduced in Australia? have policies to reduce the labour market disadvantage of women worked? Equal Pay 1972 ‘equal pay for work of equal value’ Affirmative Action policies 1986
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12 Has segregation been reduced in Australia? have policies to reduce the labour market disadvantage of women worked? Four studies shed considerable light on the extent of segregation in the Australian labour force: Lewis (‘75) Karmel/MacLachlan (‘88) Rimmer (‘91) Watts/Rich (‘92).
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13 1961-81 data. evaluate whether the introduction of ‘equal pay for equal work’ principle had any impact on gender differences in occupational patterns. Lewis: segregation did not changed over this period
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Lecture 9 (2) - ECOS3008 LABOUR ECONOMICS Week 12 24 May...

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