Bio Macromolecule notes

Bio Macromolecule notes - Biology Notes Biochemistry...

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Biology Notes Biochemistry Introduction to Molecules Living things can be organized into several different levels with the smallest being mo- lecules. Molecular level => Organelle level => Cellular level => Organism Biological formula can be molecular or structural. Ex. C6H12O6 Important Biological Molecules All organic compounds contain Carbon Most cellular material is organic Some organic material has hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and amino acids Bond Polarity 0 – 0.5 Non polar covalent 0.5 – 1.5 Polar covalent 1.5 + Ionic Disulfide Bonds A single covalent bond between two sulphur containing atoms Important in folding and stability of proteins
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Properties of Water Property of Water Significance Ice is less dense than water Ice floats and insulates the underlying water High surface tension Water forms droplets on surfaces and runs off Low viscosity Water flows through very small spaces and capillar- ies Liquid at room temperature Liquid environment for aquatic life and inside cells Colourless and transmit light Light penetrates tissue and aquatic environments Strong cohesive property and high textile strength Water can be lifted and does not pull apart easily Universal solvent Medium for chemical reactions of life (metabolism) Water is the main transport medium in organisms Water has a high latent heat of fu- sion (lots of energy before chan- ging state) Cell contents unlikely to freeze Water has a high latent heat of va- porization (lots of energy needed to evaporate) Heat is lost by evaporation of water. Sweating in an- imals and transpiring in plants cause rapid growth Water has a high specific heat ca- pacity (absorb a lot of energy with a small change in temperature Aquatic environment are thermally stable. Organ- isms can maintain internal temperature despite fluc- tuations in external temperature. Functional Groups
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Organic compounds comprise of a carbon atom with functional groups attached to it Hydroxyl Group (-OH) An oxygen joined by a single covalent bond to a hydrogen atom Organic molecules containing only hydroxyl group is known as alcohol A metal hydroxide is formed when a hydroxyl group is joined to a metal (Sodium Hydroxide) Carboxyl Group (-COOH) Carbon joined by a double covalent bond to an oxygen and a single covalent bond to another oxygen which is also single bonded to a hydrogen Organic molecules containing only carboxyl group are called carboxylic acid This group is always terminal (end of organic molecule) One valence electron on the carbon is available to bond to a larger molecule Carbonyl Group (-CO) Carbon double bonded to an oxygen At the end of a organic compound it is called aldehyde In the middle of the organic compound it is called ketone Amino Group (-NH2) Nitrogen single bonded to two hydrogen atoms Organic molecules containing only amino group are called amines They tend to be weak bases
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Jameslee during the Three '09 term at Victoria AU.

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Bio Macromolecule notes - Biology Notes Biochemistry...

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