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Day2_IRTheories - 1 Three Theories Realism Liberalism...

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Three Theories Realism Liberalism Identity Theory (Constructivism) 2
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Realism Anarchy and Self-Help States are the main actors States are unitary, rational actors Interests defined in terms of power 3
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Anarchy and Self-Help International system is anarchic No global government States have sovereignty Self-help: every state for itself A product of the anarchic system States cannot rely on other states for security 4
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State Actors Defined as a territorial unit with capabilities to defend itself – establish and defend borders Seen as the most important actors in the system They have the most power Still recognizes non-state actors (e.g. Al Qaeda, the EU, etc.) 5
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Power Defined by material capabilities Power often seen as influence, but hard to measure Measures of power Size of population, territory Resource endowment Economic capability Military strength Political stability Geopolitics 6
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Security Dilemma Created when states pursue power for defense By amassing power, threatens other states Power can be interpreted by others as a threat mutual armament What’s enough power to be safe? Defensive realism: states seek security Offensive realism: states seek maximum power 7
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Balance of Power Create rough equilibrium among states to combat security dilemma If relatively equal in power not apt to threaten each other Bandwagoning: aligning with great power Hegemonic stability Power transition increases likelihood of war? 8
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Polarity and Alliances The number of great powers in the system Multipolar: three or more great powers in the system Bipolar: two states dominate distribution of power Hegemony: one state dominates system Alliance: formal defense agreement used to prevent a great power from achieving dominance 9
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War No state seeks war, but it is always possible in anarchic system
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