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Unformatted text preview: Improvements to NOAA’s Historical Merged Land–Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880–2006) T HOMAS M. S MITH NOAA/NESDIS/STAR/SCSD, and CICS/ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland R ICHARD W. R EYNOLDS , T HOMAS C. P ETERSON , AND J AY L AWRIMORE NOAA/National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina (Manuscript received 15 June 2007, in final form 24 September 2007) ABSTRACT Observations of sea surface and land–near-surface merged temperature anomalies are used to monitor climate variations and to evaluate climate simulations; therefore, it is important to make analyses of these data as accurate as possible. Analysis uncertainty occurs because of data errors and incomplete sampling over the historical period. This manuscript documents recent improvements in NOAA’s merged global surface temperature anomaly analysis, monthly, in spatial 5° grid boxes. These improvements allow better analysis of temperatures throughout the record, with the greatest improvements in the late nineteenth century and since 1985. Improvements in the late nineteenth century are due to improved tuning of the analysis methods. Beginning in 1985, improvements are due to the inclusion of bias-adjusted satellite data. The old analysis (version 2) was documented in 2005, and this improved analysis is called version 3. 1. Introduction In recent years a number of extended historical ob- served temperature analyses have been produced for use in climate studies and climate monitoring (e.g., Sol- omon et al. 2007). The extended sea surface tempera- ture (SST) studies include Smith et al. (1996), Kaplan et al. (1998), Rayner et al. (2003, 2006), and Smith and Reynolds (2003, 2004), to name a few. Some recent analyses of extended land–near-surface temperature (LST) include Peterson and Vose (1997), Hansen et al. (2001), and Jones and Moberg (2003), and references therein. In addition, in response to the need for merged SST and LST extended analyses with error estimates a number of analyses have been produced (e.g., Parker et al. 1994; Folland et al. 2001; Jones and Moberg 2003; Smith and Reynolds 2005, hereafter SR05; Brohan et al. 2006). This series of studies by different groups has gradually increased knowledge of temperature data and analysis methods. Collectively these studies have re- sulted in more accurate analyses with better estimates of the analysis uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to document improve- ments in the merged extended temperature reconstruc- tion of SR05. Using methods developed in earlier stud- ies, that analysis separately reconstructed the SST anomalies and the LST anomalies using statistical methods. The SST and LST anomalies were merged to produce a global analysis with error estimates....
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This note was uploaded on 08/23/2011 for the course ECE 4833 taught by Professor Doolittle during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Tech.
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