06-reactions - Wed | Sep 5, 2007 Chapter 4: Types of...

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1 Week 3 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 1 Wed | Sep 5, 2007 Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions 4.1 Water 4.2 Electrolytes 4.3 Composition of Solutions Exam #1 - Next Friday (Sep 14) Week 3 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 2 Characteristics of Water • Composition: H 2 O • Bent shape • Covalent -OH bonds • Polar (unequal charge distribution)
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2 Week 3 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 3 Why is Water Bent? Oxygen has 2 lone pairs of electrons. To avoid steric hindrance, the -OH bonds spread to a 105º angle. More on shapes of molecules later… Week 3 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 4 Dissolution Polar water molecules aid in dissolving ions of a salt. Text Fig. 4.2 Hydration
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3 Week 3 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 5 When a solid or liquid enters into an aqueous phase NH 4 NO 3 ( s ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) Ammonium Nitrate (solid) Ammonium Cation (in solution) Nitrate Anion (in solution) What is Dissolution? H 2 O( l ) Week 3 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 6 “Like Dissolves Like” Ethanol Water interacting with ethanol Substances with similar intermolecular attractive forces tend to be soluble in one another.
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4 Week 3 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M
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06-reactions - Wed | Sep 5, 2007 Chapter 4: Types of...

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