Lect Osmoregulation

Lect Osmoregulation - Ion Regulation and Water Balance Joni...

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Ion Regulation and Water Balance Joni E. Wright, M.S.
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The Water Budget Concept • Potential avenues of water loss – Urine, Feces, Integument loss, Evaporation • Potential avenues of water gain – Preformed water in food, Drinking, Metabolic Water • Animals must strike equilibrium between water loss and gain
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Water Budget Strategies • Direct Control – Adaptations to gain or dump water directly from or to the environment – Adaptations that prevent water loss – Adaptations for water storage against times of shortage • Indirect Control - Osmoregulation
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Direct Control • Contractile Vacuoles • Water Loss Resistance • Water vapor absorption – Hygroscopic organs in arthropods – Agranular cells in ticks – Eversible bladder in desert cockroach larvae • Water Storage – Bladder in terrestrial amphibians and lizards
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Direct Control • Contractile vacuoles
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Water Loss Resistance • Mollusks – shells and operculum or epiphragms • Arthropods – cuticles • Fish – scales, estivating lungfish mucous • Amphibians – “Waterproof” frog wiping wax from cutaneous lipid glands, co- ossified skull plugs in casque-headed frogs, estivation cocoons
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Water Loss Resistance • Amniote vertebrates – keratinized epidermal cells • Reptiles – Scales • Mammals – Water loss via respiratory surfaces, lactation issues
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Mammal respiratory surface prevention of water loss • Do not fully saturate expired air • Higher oxygen extraction (Greater than 5%) • Exhale air at lower than body temperature • Temporal counter-current heat exchanger
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Animal Water Fat Protein Carbohydrate Cow 87.3 3.7 3.3 4.8 Human 87.6 3.8 1.2 7 Harp seal 45.3 42.7 10.5 0 Weddell Seal 43.6 42.2 14.1 0 Hooded Seal 37 61 12 0 Composition of mammal milk expressed as grams per 100g of milk.
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Habitat Water Balance • Freshwater – gain of interstitial water from medium • Saltwater (3.5%) – loss of interstitial water to medium • Estuarine – loss and/or gain of water • Terrestrial – loss of water in an environment where it is not readily available
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Ion Amount per 1 liter sea water Amount per 1 kg sea water mmol g mmol g Sodium 470.2 10.813 475.4 10.933 Magnesium 53.57 1.303 54.17 1.317 Calcium 10.23 0.41 10.34 0.414 Potassium 9.96 0.389 10.07 0.394 Chloride 548.3 19.44 554.4 19.658 Sulfate 28.25 2.713 28.56 2.744 Bicarbonate 2.34 0.143 2.37 0.145
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Ion Soft lake water River water Hard river water Saline water Dead Sea Sodium 0.17 0.39 6.13 640 1955 Magnesium 0.15 0.21 0.66 6 2028 Calcium 0.22 0.52 5.01 32 481 Potassium 0.04 0.11 16 219 Chloride 0.03 0.23 13.44 630 7112 Sulfate 0.09 0.21 1.4 54 5.3 Bicarbonate 0.43 1.11 1.39 3 3.7 mmol/kg
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Some Important Definitions 1. Osmoconformer - Allowing body fluids to become isosmotic with the medium 2. Osmoregulator - Body fluid osmotic concentration independent of the medium 3. Ionic regulation – Strict control of ion concentrations 4. Ion conformer – Allowing ionic concentrations to equal ambient levels 5. Euryhaline
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This note was uploaded on 08/24/2011 for the course PCB 4723C taught by Professor Julian during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Lect Osmoregulation - Ion Regulation and Water Balance Joni...

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