The Water Budget Concept•Potential avenues of water loss–Urine, Feces, Integument loss, Evaporation•Potential avenues of water gain–Preformed water in food, Drinking, Metabolic Water•Animals must strike equilibrium between water loss and gain
Water Budget Strategies•Direct Control–Adaptations to gain or dump water directly from or to the environment–Adaptations that prevent water loss–Adaptations for water storage against times of shortage•Indirect Control - Osmoregulation
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Direct Control•Contractile Vacuoles•Water Loss Resistance•Water vapor absorption –Hygroscopic organs in arthropods–Agranular cells in ticks–Eversible bladder in desert cockroach larvae•Water Storage–Bladder in terrestrial amphibians and lizards