Lect Vert Kidney - Water and Solute Balance Joni Wright,...

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Water and Solute Balance Joni Wright, M.S.
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“The greatest physiological advantage of terrestrial life is the easy access to oxyen; the greatest physiological threat to life on land is the danger of dehydration .” - Knut Schmidt Nielsen
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Water & Osmotic Regulation Chapter 10 Control of volume & composition of body fluids water solutes nitrogenous wastes Chapter 2, pp. 29 30 of text: Review osmolarity, tonicity, osmosis
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Excretion = Separation and ejection of metabolic wastes, usually in aqueous solution. Substances can be indispensable at one time and excreted another time: E.g., water In highly organized animals, excretion depends on 3 processes: filtration reabsorption secretion
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Text, Fig. 10.19 mammalian kidney
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No. of nephrons varies: ~ 100 lower vertebrates 1000s small mammals > Million larger mammals Combined length ~ 85 miles!
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See text, Figs. 10.20 & 10.21
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~ 70 mm Hg renal artery Filtration depends on balance of vasomotor tone in afferent and efferent arterioles
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Excretion Processes Filtration Glomerulus Reabsorption Majority at PCT Secretion
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PCT Na + co-transporters Glucose, lactate, amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, phosphate Na + /K + ATPase Cl - follows the electrochemical gradient Hyperosmotic interstitium facilitates aquaporin mediated osmosis from the tubule Reabsorption Organic solutes Inorganic phosphate 60-75% Na + , Cl - , and H 2 O
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standing gradient of osmolarity hyposmotic hyperosmotic
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ADH- sensitive impermeable to NaCl highly permeable to H 2 O impermeable to water Text figures 10.25 & 10.28
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ADH Sensitivity Vasopressin is secreted from the posterior
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Lect Vert Kidney - Water and Solute Balance Joni Wright,...

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