LectureTemperature 2010 web

LectureTemperature 2010 web - Temperature Influences...

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Temperature • Influences virtually every life process • Body temperature, T b , determined by heat exchanges with environment Specific heat of animal tissues generally close to that for water, ~ 2.9 - 3.8 J/(g • °C) Heat capacity = mass x specific heat g x J/(g • °C) = J/°C small animals heat and cool more quickly than do large animals
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Temperature • Range of Earth temperatures, 70 °C to +85 °C • Life temperatures generally ~ 0 to 45 °C exceptions (freeze tolerance; bacteria at deep ocean vents tolerate 250 °C !) • Death occurs: lower limit : ice crystals, osmotic disturbance upper limit : enzyme denaturation, reaction uncouplings, changes in lipid states integrated systems more sensitive than component parts
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Temperature Tolerance zone of tolerance Tolerated Temp. °C Acclimation Temperature, °C
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digestion with optimum Temperature, °C rate of digestion regulated temperature
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Q 10 or “Temperature Coefficient” Q 10 specifies the factorial increase in velocity or rate process that accompanies 10 °C rise in body temperature (T b ) Typically Q 10 = 2 to 3 for most biochemical and physiological processes See text, Box 13.2
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ectotherm
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Compensation Long-term exposure Acute exposure Long-term exposure ectotherm
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Homeoviscous acclimation fluidity compensation for temperature in membranes fluidity compensation for temperature in membranes • cold temperature cold temperature less fluid membrane structure less fluid membrane structure 9 compensated compensated ” by shorter, less saturated fatty acids by shorter, less saturated fatty acids • warm temperature warm temperature more fluid membrane structure more fluid membrane structure 9 “compensated compensated ” by longer by longer -chain, more saturated fatty acids chain, more saturated fatty acids [ [ See Text See Text , pp. 637 , pp. 637 640; Figs. 13.11 & 13.12] 640; Figs. 13.11 & 13.12]
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Temperature Regulation Endothermy Reading 9 Chapter 13
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H Energy Exchange Energy Exchange “thermal radiation” = long wave infrared radiation See Text Fig. 13.2 conduction
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Energy Balance Equation •E in = E out ( see text p. 627 see text p. 627 ) • Specifies body temperature for any set of conditions • Mathematical modeling 9 climate space = range of microclimatic conditions compatible with thermal tolerance range of a species 9
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LectureTemperature 2010 web - Temperature Influences...

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