ch 1 2 3 thesis (revised) (1)

ch 1 2 3 thesis (revised) (1) - PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT IN...

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PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT IN ATTRIBUTION AND SELF-EFFICACY Perceived Social Support as a Moderator Variable in the Relationship Between Ability Attributions for Failure and Self-Efficacy Marianne M. Meneses and Aimee E. Reyes De La Salle University - Manila 4
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PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT IN ATTRIBUTION AND SELF-EFFICACY Table of Contents Chapter 1 .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Abstract ........................................................................................................................................ 3 Background .................................................................................................................................. 4 Review of Related Literature ....................................................................................................... 2 Conceptual Framework .............................................................................................................. 13 Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................................... 14 Statement of the Hypotheses ...................................................................................................... 14 Definition of Terms .................................................................................................................... 14 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................................... 17 Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................................................ 19 Research Design ......................................................................................................................... 19 Sampling ..................................................................................................................................... 20 Instrumentation ........................................................................................................................... 20 Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 22 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 24 Summary .................................................................................................................................... 24 Time Schedule ............................................................................................................................ 25 References .................................................................................................................................. 28 4
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PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT IN ATTRIBUTION AND SELF-EFFICACY Background According to the results of the survey conducted by the National Statistics Office in the year 2003 concerning the highest educational attainment of Filipinos, population including 6 years of age and above showed that out of 69, 144 respondents from different regions of the Philippines majority of them attained high school level only (28.81%), 7.98% finished college and 8.32% attained a college level. World Education Indicators (WEI) Programme, on the other hand, revealed that 27 out of 100 Filipinos aged 26-64 have at least completed tertiary education. With these statistics provided, it reveals that a number of students are not able to finish college, thus lowering the rate of college education here in the Philippines. Filipino college students aim for a college diploma because it symbolizes the attainment of a life goal, the promise of professional success, financial stability and personal stature (Puyat, 2005). However, goals are not static entities – rather individuals frequently revise their personal performance standards up and down as they are pursued over time (Bandura, 1991; Carver & Scheier, 2000). As a college student, we know that college experience is bound with successes and failures. These events are followed by attributions (Weiner, 1986) which can change their behavior to either further or avoid the experience from the past performance. For example, individuals confronted with negative feedback (failure) indicating a discrepancy between their goals and performance may adjust their goals to be in line with their performance rather than attempting to bring their performance in line with their goals (Altermatt & Pomerantz, 2003). This in turn, will change the motivation of college students; from the attainment of college diploma to dropping out of school when negative outcomes are frequently experienced. Negative feedback may be more costly to one’s self perceptions when attributed to factors under one’s own control, as the negative outcomes are seen as a result of one’s own 4
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PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT IN ATTRIBUTION AND SELF-EFFICACY shortcomings rather than external factors over which one has no control (Bandura, 1997; Schunk, 1984). These repeated styles of attribution to failure will lead one to develop learned helplessness which refers to the expectation, based on previous experience, that one’s actions cannot possible lead to success (Dweck, 1975).
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