Lecture_60 - CHM2330 Intro to Quantum Theory 67 Quantum...

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CHM2330 – Intro to Quantum Theory 67 Quantum Theory: Introduction and Principles (Chapter 7) Recommended reading: “Further Information 7.1: Classical mechanics” Quick review of the basic principles of classical mechanics/classical physics. Classical physics is the physics developed before 1900. Specifically: - Newton’s laws of motion - Maxwell’s theories of electricity, magnetism, electromagnetic radiation - the kinetic theory of gases According to classical mechanics: 1. We can predict a precise trajectory for particles, with precisely specified locations and momenta at each instant. 2. A molecule can take on any energy, simply by controlling the forces we apply. 3. Electromagnetic radiation behaves like a classical wave. However, in the late 19 th century, various experimental results were obtained which could not be explained by classical mechanics.
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CHM2330 – Intro to Quantum Theory 68 Three examples of the failures of classical physics Classical physics was unable to account for observations with: 1. Black-body radiation 2. The photoelectric effect 3. Explanation of atomic and molecular spectra Black Body Radiation - all objects emit electromagnetic radiation - wavelengths emitted depend on the temperature and the material
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CHM2330 – Intro to Quantum Theory 69 Definition of an ideal black body: - an object which is capable of emitting and absorbing all frequencies of radiation uniformly -or- - a body that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation which falls on it A good physical approximation to this theoretical definition is a cavity with a small pinhole.
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