WHAT TO KNOW LIST – NEW MATERIAL
GEOLOGY 100, FINAL EXAM
TUESDAY, MAY 3, 2:15-4:15 pm
Hoover 1213 (Last Name A – C); Hoover 2055 (Last Name D – Z)
The following topics will be covered in the first half of the Final Exam.
on the Final Exam will be taken directly from the previous three exams (15 questions chosen
at random from each of the three previous exams).
If a particular topic is not covered or only
partially covered in class, you are responsible for learning about it by doing the reading
assignments in the textbook.
If a topic is NOT listed here, IT WILL NOT BE ON THE TEST!
Variation in ocean salinity and temperature with latitude and depth:
Water saltier in warm latitudes, less salty near poles
because of melting ice.
Currents – surface currents, upwelling, downwelling, deep currents, global conveyor belt:
Surface currents- interaction
between the sea surface and wind. Upwelling- Water is driven offshore from northern winds. Downwelling- opposite.
Deep Currents- deep water moves due to variations in density. Global Converyor Belt- Large scale ocean circulation
Tides – causes
: Gravitational attraction of the sun and moon and centrifugal force. When moon sun and earth lined up,
tides extra high, when right angles, extra low
Ocean waves – circular motion, wave base:
Wave base- depth below which there is no wave motion (Depth=1/2
a change in speed causes change in the direction the wave is moving
created by wave refraction; zigzag motion of water and sand parallel to shore
Sandy shores – sand spit, baymouth bar, Barrier Island:
Sand Spits- Occurs where there is an indentation in the
shoreline, and the longshore current moves sand parallel to the shore. Baymouth Bar- Are Sand spits that grow across a
bay. Barrier Island- Narrow strips of sand that parallel the shoreline. A lagoon separates the shore from the island.
Rocky coasts – wave cut benches, sea stacks, sea arches:
wave cut benches- wave erosion causes migration of cliff face
inland. Sea Stacks- Erosion remnants of former headlands. Sea Arches- Eroded headlands.
Gentle, flat-lying shore dominated by swamps and marshes. Slows down hurricanes.
Flooded river valleys that are influenced by the tides
Coral reefs – fringing reef, barrier reef, atoll
: Fringing Reef- Reefs right next to shore. Barrier Reef- Lagoon between
reef and shore. Atoll- reef ring with lagoon in center.
Eustatic sea level changes:
Man-made structures along coastlines – groins, jetties, breakwaters, seawalls:
Jetties exdent rivers our. Breakwaters-
traps sand between breakwater and beach. Seawalls used to protect shores from storm waves
Glacier types – mountain, continental:
Mountain- on mountains. Continental- Ice Sheets
Glacier formation – snow line, firn, and glacial ice:
Snow Line- elevation in mountainous regions where snow is all
year. Firn- packed snow before glacial ice. Glacial ice- interlocked ice crystals.