Geology Final Study Guide

Geology Final Study Guide - WHAT TO KNOW LIST NEW MATERIAL...

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WHAT TO KNOW LIST – NEW MATERIAL GEOLOGY 100, FINAL EXAM TUESDAY, MAY 3, 2:15-4:15 pm LOCATION: Hoover 1213 (Last Name A – C); Hoover 2055 (Last Name D – Z) The following topics will be covered in the first half of the Final Exam. Additional material on the Final Exam will be taken directly from the previous three exams (15 questions chosen at random from each of the three previous exams). If a particular topic is not covered or only partially covered in class, you are responsible for learning about it by doing the reading assignments in the textbook. If a topic is NOT listed here, IT WILL NOT BE ON THE TEST! Variation in ocean salinity and temperature with latitude and depth: Water saltier in warm latitudes, less salty near poles because of melting ice. Currents – surface currents, upwelling, downwelling, deep currents, global conveyor belt: Surface currents- interaction between the sea surface and wind. Upwelling- Water is driven offshore from northern winds. Downwelling- opposite. Deep Currents- deep water moves due to variations in density. Global Converyor Belt- Large scale ocean circulation Tides – causes : Gravitational attraction of the sun and moon and centrifugal force. When moon sun and earth lined up, tides extra high, when right angles, extra low Ocean waves – circular motion, wave base: Wave base- depth below which there is no wave motion (Depth=1/2 wavelength. Wave refraction: a change in speed causes change in the direction the wave is moving Longshore currents: created by wave refraction; zigzag motion of water and sand parallel to shore Sandy shores – sand spit, baymouth bar, Barrier Island: Sand Spits- Occurs where there is an indentation in the shoreline, and the longshore current moves sand parallel to the shore. Baymouth Bar- Are Sand spits that grow across a bay. Barrier Island- Narrow strips of sand that parallel the shoreline. A lagoon separates the shore from the island. Rocky coasts – wave cut benches, sea stacks, sea arches: wave cut benches- wave erosion causes migration of cliff face inland. Sea Stacks- Erosion remnants of former headlands. Sea Arches- Eroded headlands. Coastal wetlands: Gentle, flat-lying shore dominated by swamps and marshes. Slows down hurricanes. Estuaries: Flooded river valleys that are influenced by the tides Coral reefs – fringing reef, barrier reef, atoll : Fringing Reef- Reefs right next to shore. Barrier Reef- Lagoon between reef and shore. Atoll- reef ring with lagoon in center. Eustatic sea level changes: Man-made structures along coastlines – groins, jetties, breakwaters, seawalls: Jetties exdent rivers our. Breakwaters- traps sand between breakwater and beach. Seawalls used to protect shores from storm waves Glaciation Glacier types – mountain, continental: Mountain- on mountains. Continental- Ice Sheets Glacier formation – snow line, firn, and glacial ice: Snow Line- elevation in mountainous regions where snow is all year. Firn- packed snow before glacial ice. Glacial ice- interlocked ice crystals.
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This note was uploaded on 08/24/2011 for the course GEOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Janedawson during the Spring '11 term at Iowa State.

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Geology Final Study Guide - WHAT TO KNOW LIST NEW MATERIAL...

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