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Neurons - have the resting potential Resting potential •...

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Chapter 3 Neuroscience and Behavior
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When a neuron is not sending a signal, it is "at rest." When a neuron is at rest, the inside of the neuron is negative relative to the outside. Although the concentrations of the different ions attempt to balance out on both sides of the membrane, they cannot because the cell membrane allows only some ions to pass through channels (ion channels). Sodium potassium pump
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At rest, potassium ions (K + ) can cross through the membrane easily. Also at rest, chloride ions (Cl - )and sodium ions (Na + ) have a more difficult time crossing. The negatively charged protein molecules (A - ) inside the neuron cannot cross the membrane. Neuron at rest (resting potential)
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In addition to selective ion channels, the sodium-potassium pump uses energy to move three sodium ions out of the neuron for every two potassium ions it puts in. Finally, when all these forces balance out, and the difference in the voltage between the inside and outside of the neuron is measured, you
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Unformatted text preview: have the resting potential . Resting potential • The resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70 mV (mV = millivolt) - this means that the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside. • At rest, there are relatively more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. √ Neurotransmitters are chemical substances √ They carry signals across the synaptic cleft √ Enhance or inhibit action potentials √ Enhance = agonists Inhibit = antagonists √ nicotinic ACh receptor √ β-Adrenoceptor √ histamine √ opiate ( μ-receptor) √ 5-HT 2 √ dopamine (D 2 ) √ insulin receptor √ estrogen receptor √ progesterone receptor √ acetylcholinesterase √ choline acetyltransferase √ monoamine oxidase A and B √ dopa decarboxylase √ DNA polymerase √ dihydrofolate reductase √ HIV protease √ thymidine kinase √ reverse transcriptase...
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