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5_60_lecture14

# 5_60_lecture14 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.60 Thermodynamics & Kinetics Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .

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5.60 Spring 2008 Lecture #14 page 1 Multicomponent Systems, Partial Molar Quantities, and the Chemical Potential So far we’ve worked with fundamental equations for a closed (no mass change) system with no composition change. dU TdS pdV dA SdT = = − pdV dH = TdS + Vdp dG = − SdT + Vdp How does this change if we allow the composition of the system to change? Like in a chemical reaction or a biochemical process? Consider Gibbs free energy of a 2-component system ( , , 1 , 2 ) G T p n n dG = T G , , dT + G p dp + G n 1 dn 1 + n G dn 2 p n n 2 1 2 , , 1 2 , , 2 T p n , , 1 ±²³²´ T n n T p n ±²³²´ ±²³²´ ±²³²´ S V µ 1 µ 2 We define µ i ⎛ ∂ G as the chemical potential of species “i” n i T p n , , j i ( , , j ) is an intensive variable µ i T p n This gives a new set of fundamental equations for open systems (mass can flow in and out, composition can change) dG = − SdT + Vdp + µ i dn i i dH = TdS + Vdp + µ i dn i i dU TdS pdV + µ i i = dn i dA
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5_60_lecture14 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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