5_60_lecture14

5_60_lecture14 - MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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Unformatted text preview: MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.60 Thermodynamics & Kinetics Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms . 5.60 Spring 2008 Lecture #14 page 1 Multicomponent Systems, Partial Molar Quantities, and the Chemical Potential So far weve worked with fundamental equations for a closed (no mass change) system with no composition change. dU TdS pdV dA SdT = = pdV dH = TdS + Vdp dG = SdT + Vdp How does this change if we allow the composition of the system to change? Like in a chemical reaction or a biochemical process? Consider Gibbs free energy of a 2-component system ( , , 1 , 2 ) G T p n n dG = T G , , dT + G p dp + G n 1 dn 1 + n G dn 2 p n n 2 1 2 , , 1 2 , , 2 T p n , , 1 T n n T p n S V 1 2 We define i G as the chemical potential of species i n i T p n , , j i ( , , j ) is an intensive variable i T p n This gives a new set of fundamental equations for open systems (mass can flow in and out, composition can change) dG = SdT + Vdp + i dn i i dH = TdS + Vdp + i dn i i dU TdS pdV + i i = dn i dA = SdT pdV + i dn i i 5.60 Spring 2008 5....
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course CHM 170 taught by Professor Lemtayo during the Spring '11 term at MIT.

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5_60_lecture14 - MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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