5_60_lecture16

5_60_lecture16 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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Unformatted text preview: MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.60 Thermodynamics & Kinetics Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms . 5.60 Spring 2008 Lecture #16 page 1 Equilibrium in Solution The chemical potential for molecules in solution is given by a formula that is very similar to that for ideal gases: ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] µ µ µ = + = + , , , ln , ln o o A A A A A T p c T p RT c T p RT A The precise definition of the standard chemical potential ( ) µ , o A T p is now more complicated; it is defined at a given pH, salt concentration, etc…, all solution properties that need to be defined in advance. We will not go through those and take it as a given that the standard state is appropriately defined. Given a standard chemical potential ( ) µ , o A T p , then the analysis that we did for the ideal gas follows straight through and we find for a solution process ν A A(sol, T , p ) + ν B B(sol, T , p ) = ν C C(sol, T , p ) + ν D D(sol, T , p ) that following the ideal gas analysis in our previous lecture ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ν ν ν ν ε ε ν µ ν µ ν µ ν µ ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ∆ = + − + + ⎜ ⎟ ⎨ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ o o o o ( ) ln C D B A A A B B C C D D C D G T T T T RT A B and the equilibrium constant K comes out through ∆ = − ln o rxn G RT K , −∆ = o G RT K e Where...
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5_60_lecture16 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 5.60...

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