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Unformatted text preview: Gases Physical Chemistry • Application of physics to the study of chemistry Develops rigorous and detailed explanations of central, unifying concepts in chemistry Contains mathematical models that provide quantitative predictions . Mathematical underpinning to concepts applied in analytical, inorganic, organic, and biochemistry Includes essential concepts for studying advanced courses in chemistry • Source: American Chemical Society Divisions of Physical Chemistry • Main Problems – Position of Chemical Equilibrium A + B <=> C + D – Rate of Chemical Reactions  Kinetics – Other special topics • Approaches – Top down (Traditional/Analytical/Historical Approach) • Begin with things we observe in the world/laboratory • Examine how those observables relate to the underlying structure of matter – Bottom up (Synthetic/Molecular Approach) • Consider the underlying structure of matter • Derive observables Traditional Approach Equilibrium Thermodynamics Chapters 110 Chemical Kinetics Chapters 24, 25, 26, 27 Quantum Theory/ Spectroscopy Statistical Thermodynamics Special Topics Equations of State • Gases are the simplest state of matter – Completely fills any container it occupies – Pure gases (single component) or mixtures of components • Equation of state  equation that relates the variables defining its physical properties – Equation of state for gas: p = f (T,V,n) – Gases (pure) Properties  four, however, three specifies system • Pressure, p, force per unit area, N/m 2 = Pa (pascal) – Standard pressure = p ø = 10 5 Pa = 1bar – Measured by manometer (open or closed tube), p = p external + ρ gh » g = gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s2 – Mechanical equilibrium  pressure on either side of movable wall will equalize • Volume, V • Amount of substance (number of moles), n • Temperature, T, indicates direction of flow of energy (heat) between two bodies; change results in change of physical state of object • Boundaries between objects – Diathermic  heat flows between bodies. Change of state occurs when bodies of different temp. brought into contact – Adiabatic  heat flows between bodies. No change of state occurs when bodies of different temp brought into contact Heat Flow and Thermal Equilibrium • Thermal equilibrium  no change of state occurs when two objects are in contact through a diathermic boundary • Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics  If A is in thermal equilibrium with B and B is in thermal equilibrium with C then A is in thermal equilibrium with C – Justifies use of thermometer – Temperature scales: • Celsius scale,...
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course CHM 170 taught by Professor Lemtayo during the Spring '11 term at MIT.
 Spring '11
 LemTayo
 Physical chemistry, pH

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