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CPSY2/25Growth and Motor skillsMajor tasks of early childhood include:-Growing taller and slimming down-Increasing weight in brain-Running, jumping, coordinating body movements (climbing, kicking a ball, clapping inrhythm)-Increased finger dexterity (tying shoes, forming letters, cutting with scissors)Brain development and executive functionWhat abilities are associated with the prefrontal cortex?-Inhibition of impulses-Switching between tasks-Regulating emotions thoughts and behaviorsEnvironmental InfluencesNutrition-No global guidelines from who about child nutrition-Who advises:oIncrease consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nutsoLimit total fats and shift fat consumption to unsaturated fatsoLimit the intake of sugars-Why does diet matter?oStrengthen well-being and cognitive abilitiesoDecreased risk of current and future health problemsObesityCardiovascular diseasesCancerEating disordersoHealthy nutrition in early life..ExerciseRegular exercise promotes-Healthy body weight-Lower cardiovascular risk-Motor development-Social and emotional growth
Barriers to activity-Distractions-Safety-Lack of access-Parent educationWhy are young children so likely to get hurt?-Still-developing motor skills-Lack of impulse control and planning abilities-Increasing sense of independencePrimary prevention: Something that occurs before a bad thing does. Applied to everyone.-Ex: sidewalks, crosswalksSecondary prevention: Occurs before a bad thing but directed for certain people.-Ex: flashing cross walk sign for kids by a schoolTertiary prevention: Happens after the bad thing to make it better.Maltreatment: these practices maltreatment or not?Acceptable:-Circumcision-Requiring a child to work on a family farm-Requiring a child to work in a storeNot acceptable:-Breast ironing-Marrying children to adults-Marrying children to one another-Spanking a child with a beltNot sure:-Massaging a child’s entire body-Spanking a child with your handMaltreatment in MN-Physical abuse, neglect, or sexual abuseNeglect in MN-Not giving a child necessary food, clothing, shelter, medical care, education, orsupervisionoCould be due to substance useoShould not be because parents do not have access to these things-Failure to protect a child from danger
-Prenatal exposure to controlled substances-Nationally about 70% of child maltreatment cases concern neglect-Neglect associated with:oReduced brain grownoDelays in cognitive and social functioningPhysical abuse in MN-Physical injury, mental injury, or threatened injuryoNot things done by accidentoNot “reasonable and moderate discipline” by a parent/guardianoNot “use of reasonable force” by a school employee-Associated withoAggressionoHeightened sensitivity to anger and threatsSexual abuse in MN-Child prostitution (hiring, asking, making money from, trafficking)-Criminal sexual conduct-Living in a home with a sex offender-Associated withoAggression, behavior problemsoSocial and emotional problems2/27