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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Fundamentals of Convection Chapter 6 FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVECTION Physical Mechanisms of Forced Convection 6-1C In forced convection, the fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a tube by external means such as a pump or a fan. In natural convection, any fluid motion is caused by natural means such as the buoyancy effect that manifests itself as the rise of the warmer fluid and the fall of the cooler fluid. The convection caused by winds is natural convection for the earth, but it is forced convection for bodies subjected to the winds since for the body it makes no difference whether the air motion is caused by a fan or by the winds. 6-2C If the fluid is forced to flow over a surface, it is called external forced convection. If it is forced to flow in a tube, it is called internal forced convection. A heat transfer system can involve both internal and external convection simultaneously. Example: A pipe transporting a fluid in a windy area. 6-3C The convection heat transfer coefficient will usually be higher in forced convection since heat transfer coefficient depends on the fluid velocity, and forced convection involves higher fluid velocities. 6-4C The potato will normally cool faster by blowing warm air to it despite the smaller temperature difference in this case since the fluid motion caused by blowing enhances the heat transfer coefficient considerably. 6-5C Nusselt number is the dimensionless convection heat transfer coefficient, and it represents the enhancement of heat transfer through a fluid layer as a result of convection relative to conduction across the same fluid layer. It is defined as Nu hL k = where L is the characteristic length of the surface and k is the thermal conductivity of the fluid. 6-6C Heat transfer through a fluid is conduction in the absence of bulk fluid motion, and convection in the presence of it. The rate of heat transfer is higher in convection because of fluid motion. The value of the convection heat transfer coefficient depends on the fluid motion as well as the fluid properties. Thermal conductivity is a fluid property, and its value does not depend on the flow. 6-7C A fluid flow during which the density of the fluid remains nearly constant is called incompressible flow . A fluid whose density is practically independent of pressure (such as a liquid) is called an incompressible fluid. The flow of compressible fluid (such as air) is not necessarily compressible since the density of a compressible fluid may still remain constant during flow. 6-1 Chapter 6 Fundamentals of Convection 6-8 Heat transfer coefficients at different air velocities are given during air cooling of potatoes. The initial rate of heat transfer from a potato and the temperature gradient at the potato surface are to be determined....
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- Heat Transfer