Biological Anthropology Notes 10

Biological Anthropology Notes 10 - Biological Anthropology...

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Biological Anthropology Notes November 29, 2006 - After Lucy: Robust and Gracile grades o Grades, not taxa o Robust grade: specialization in chewing Diet of tough fibrous plant food o Summary of robust/gracile differences Robust Big molars and premolars – 3x the size of our molars o Molarized premolars o Small front teeth (incisors and canines) Heavy (buttressed) mandible o Flaring zygomatic arch – connects bigger jaw muscles to cheek bone, giving them more room by flaring out o Sagital crest – to help connect heavier jaw muscles to top of cranium Need big muscles to work big jaws Big muscles need large areas for muscle attachment Smaller brain Gracile Back teeth not as big Jaw not as heavy Cheekbone not flaring No sagital crest Larger brain (later forms) - South Africa o Gracile Grade: Australopithecus africanus 2.3 mya No volcanic activity Faunal association 460cc brain size (small) Gracile features IMI > 100 Big toe slightly divergent Taung Child Skull found of a child Helps to look at growth pattern o Closer to the growth pattern of a chimp - South Africa o Robust Grade: Australopithecus robustus
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1-2 mya Robust features Flat face (less prognathic) Small brain (500cc) - East Africa
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Biological Anthropology Notes 10 - Biological Anthropology...

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