Anthropology5_Social_Living

Anthropology5_Social_Living - Anthro 5 18:03 Social Living...

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Unformatted text preview: Anthro 5 18:03 Social Living Size Factors Feeding and Sociality Differences in Valuation Female Grouping Male-Female Relationships Recap • Altruistic behavior is favored only when it benefits the underlying gene • Kin selection promotes behavior that benefits a likely gene cope in another body • Reciprocal altruism is an exchange of costs and benefits that lead to a net benefit Social Living • Reciprocal altruism and kin selection allow groups of animals to live “peacefully” • But when should certain animals be social? o When the benefits outweigh the costs! • Benefits of being social o More eyes to see predators – detection o Less chance of being singled out by a predator – dilution o More to attack - defense o Mates usually easy to find o More individuals to look for food o More individuals to defend food • Costs of being social o Larger groups are more visible to predators o Social hierarchies produce subordinates o Increases in disease o Increased competition for food o Increased competition for mates • Social animals are those that o Rely on active (detection, defense) anti-predator strategies o Rely on food that is hard to find but easy to share • Solitary animals o Rely on passive (hiding) anti-predator strategies o Rely on food that cannot be shared Size Factors • Primates are in the Order of Mammals • Includes o Prosimians • The smallest is the pygmy mouse lemur • The largest is the male gorilla (5’9 400 pounds in the wild) • What and how much you eat depends on how large you are • Large animals need absolutely more food but relatively less food • You versus your pets • Some small primates eat their body weight per day every day • Large primates eat only a fraction of their body weight, even though that fraction is still a lot of food • Metabolic rate scales at ¾ body weight • This scaling is called the Kleiber Principle • Large animals can get by on o Small amounts of high calorie items o Large amounts of low calorie items • Small animals must eat high-calorie items o Why? Higher metabolic rates, need food as much as they weigh • Gum and insects • Fruit and insects • Fruit and leaves • Leaves Feeding and Sociality • The nature of the food determines the sociality of the primate • All food types can be described in terms of how food items are spread out in...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2011 for the course ANTH 5 taught by Professor Gaulin during the Fall '07 term at UCSB.

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Anthropology5_Social_Living - Anthro 5 18:03 Social Living...

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