Anthropolog2_Livelihoods

Anthropolog2_Livelihoods - • Live in the arid Kalahari...

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Anthro 2 - Livelihoods 17:31 Livelihoods Economic Anthropology “Social Reproduction” o Production, consumption, exchange o Social Organization How do people live Foraging o Gathering and Hunting o Original human adaptive strategy o Most food consists of seeds, nuts, plants, small animals Little big game o Environment o Mobility: geographical and social o Gender o No “untouched” foragers o Egalitarian: little stratification Cultivation o Horticulture Non-intensive Slash-andburn Mobile o Agriculture Intensive In capital, labor technology
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Animals Irrigation Shared infrastructure Sedentarism  Increased yields: surplus Peasantries o Pastoralism Domesticated animals Cattle, sheep, goats, llamas Meat, milk, blood, wool, labor, manure Nomadism and Transhumance Commonly combined with Cultivation !Kung San
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Unformatted text preview: • Live in the arid Kalahari desert • Semi-permanent villages of 10-30 people o Follow water sources • Intimate knowledge of environment and landscapes Pristine? • Traditional view: isolated, ancient livelihood • Revisionist view: contact with farmers and herders for a long time o 1965: 80% were herders, farmers, or workers o Archaeological evidence of pastoralism, metalwork in the Kalahari since 500 a.d. o A response to current environmental and social conditions “Survival” or “Affluence”? • Earlier anthropologists saw foragers as living on the “edge of survival” o Unlimited wants; limited goods • Marshall Sahlins: “original affluent society” o Limited wants; well adapted 17:31 17:31...
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Anthropolog2_Livelihoods - • Live in the arid Kalahari...

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