875 - Behavioural Patterns of Iranian High-tech Companies...

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Behavioural Patterns of Iranian High-tech Companies Regarding Technology Sourcing Dominique R. JOLLY (1) and Azita KARAMIPOUR (2) 1. CERAM Sophia Antipolis, France 2. Niroo Technology Center, Iran ABSTRACT This research studies the different modes of technology sourcing in Iranian high-tech companies. It aims at revealing what is the attitude of Iranian high-tech companies regarding technology sourcing. Thanks to an examination of a panel of selected examples, we infer a typology of Iranian high-tech companies according to their behaviour regarding technology sourcing. We identify two extreme behaviors: the “Technology Implementer” which do not perform R&D activities and “Emphasize on R&D”, i.e. companies which rely on the R&D activities. We identified as well the three other kinds of categories performing a combination of R&D in-house and other modes of technology sourcing with emphasizing on some of them. TECHNOLOGY SOURCING IN EMERGING COUNTRIES Firms situated in developing countries, such as other firms in developed countries are increasingly devoted to use external sources of technology. This is due to technological gaps existing between developed and developing countries, pressure to gain access to technology, and limited capacity to generate new technology in developing countries (Lall, 2000). Different countries use different modes of technology sourcing, according to their different political and economical conditions, different resources and intellectual properties. We analyze the cases of technology sourcing in China, India, and Brazil. The case of Iran will be studied in detail, in the next part. The Chinese open door policy, launched in 1978, has been the starting point for Chinese companies to gain access to technologies of foreign companies. Sino-foreign joint ventures have been the main channel for transferring technologies from abroad. The rationale of these agreements has been to combine technology and local settings. The Chinese partner gains access to technological assets while the foreign partner gains access to local settings in exogamic partnerships (Jolly; 2004, 2005, 2006). This first step allows each partner to acquire and assimilate knowledge. If the partner has the willingness to do so, the next step is to transform and exploit the knowledge captured in its own businesses (Zahra and George, 2002). Interestingly, joint ventures are no more the sole mode for technology access. Because of changes in government policy and the disappointing performance of some joint ventures, a few sectors recently experimented with a number of fully-owned organizational arrangements (Vanhonacker, 1997; Deng, 2001; Yan & Warner, 2002). Obviously, wholly foreign-owned enterprises give more flexibility and control to the owner. But at the same time, these arrangements offer a weak interface with the local context and greater risks because they operate alone. The new entrant is particularly vulnerable to indigenous conditions.
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Krull during the Spring '07 term at Northeastern.

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875 - Behavioural Patterns of Iranian High-tech Companies...

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