Behavioural Patterns of Iranian High-tech Companies
Regarding Technology Sourcing
Dominique R. JOLLY (1) and Azita KARAMIPOUR (2)
CERAM Sophia Antipolis, France
Niroo Technology Center, Iran
This research studies the different modes of technology sourcing in Iranian high-tech
It aims at revealing what is the attitude of Iranian high-tech companies regarding
Thanks to an examination of a panel of selected examples, we infer a
typology of Iranian high-tech companies according to their behaviour regarding technology
We identify two extreme behaviors: the “Technology Implementer” which do not
perform R&D activities and “Emphasize on R&D”, i.e. companies which rely on the R&D
We identified as well the three other kinds of categories performing a combination
of R&D in-house and other modes of technology sourcing with emphasizing on some of them.
TECHNOLOGY SOURCING IN EMERGING COUNTRIES
Firms situated in developing countries, such as other firms in developed countries are
increasingly devoted to use external sources of technology.
This is due to technological gaps
existing between developed and developing countries, pressure to gain access to technology,
and limited capacity to generate new technology in developing countries (Lall, 2000).
Different countries use different modes of technology sourcing, according to their different
political and economical conditions, different resources and intellectual properties. We
analyze the cases of technology sourcing in China, India, and Brazil.
The case of Iran will be
studied in detail, in the next part.
The Chinese open door policy, launched in 1978, has been the starting point for Chinese
companies to gain access to technologies of foreign companies.
Sino-foreign joint ventures
have been the main channel for transferring technologies from abroad.
The rationale of these
agreements has been to combine technology and local settings.
The Chinese partner gains
access to technological assets while the foreign partner gains access to local settings in
exogamic partnerships (Jolly; 2004, 2005, 2006).
This first step allows each partner to
acquire and assimilate knowledge. If the partner has the willingness to do so, the next step is
to transform and exploit the knowledge captured in its own businesses (Zahra and George,
Interestingly, joint ventures are no more the sole mode for technology access.
Because of changes in government policy and the disappointing performance of some joint
ventures, a few sectors recently experimented with a number of fully-owned organizational
arrangements (Vanhonacker, 1997; Deng, 2001; Yan & Warner, 2002).
foreign-owned enterprises give more flexibility and control to the owner.
But at the same
time, these arrangements offer a weak interface with the local context and greater risks
because they operate alone.
The new entrant is particularly vulnerable to indigenous