2010 Final Exam - Zoology 4472 Final Exam Spring 2010...

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Zoology 4472 Final Exam Spring 2010 Name__________________________ Please answer all questions. Adjust your time according to the point value of each question. Place your name in the upper-right corner of every page. This exam is worth 90 points. Good luck! 1a) ( 2 pts) Name one advantage and one disadvantage of eating a diet of mostly fruit. b) (3 pts) In the temperate zone (North America, for example) there are no species of birds that eat mostly fruit all year, whereas in the tropics (Central America, for example) there are lots of species that eat mostly fruit all year. Where would you expect territoriality to be most common in those species of birds that consume fruits? Explain. c) (4 pts) Someone has reported a tropical fruit-eating bird that is highly territorial. Interestingly, males have very small territories that are always near the small territories of other males. In other words, all the males’ territories are tightly clumped in space. The females have normal-sized territories but defend them only for a small part of the year. Propose an explanation for these big differences in territory size between males and females. Next, propose an explanation for seasonal territorial defense by females.
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2a) (3 pts) For many years, avian biologists focused on the balance of energy gained relative to time spent when trying to explain foraging behavior of birds. Their belief was that birds should maximize the ratio of energy/time (E/T). This “optimal foraging” framework is no longer embraced to the degree that it once was. People now realize that many factors besides energy and time can determine foraging behavior of birds. This question addresses two such factors. First, consider fruit selection by birds. Because fruits are made by plants to be eaten by vertebrates, fruits are often considered to be a “free lunch” for birds. Given what you know about the evolutionary purpose of fruits, what cost to a bird likely comes with every fruit it consumes? This question can be answered with one word – it’s simple. Explain why the cost is especially significant for birds, as opposed to most mammals. b) (3 pts) If you look closely at the holly tree near the corner of McCarty Hall (or at the mulberry tree that some of us picked fruits from in Cedar Key last weekend), you’ll see that fruits are not removed at equal rates from all parts of the tree. Fruits near the ground or sidewalk are the last to be taken by birds. Why might this be so? Where on a tree would you expect fruits to be removed first by birds? Explain. c) (5 pts) Fruit-eating birds often travel in flocks and are quite noisy when they feeding in fruiting trees, even though they travel from tree to tree without making much noise. Why might they behave so differently within versus between trees? To get you thinking along the right track, consider another piece of information:
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2010 Final Exam - Zoology 4472 Final Exam Spring 2010...

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