Bones and Muscles - How to build a flying machine (an...

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How to build a flying machine (an overview of lecture material for the next few weeks) 1. Bones and muscles 2. Respiration and circulation 3. Reproductive system 4. Nervous system 5. Feathers and flight
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Birds may seem Body mass Birds Mammals Smallest 2.3gm 2.3gm Largest 150kg 136,000kg Mammals : with or without hair Birds : bodies always covered with feathers Mammals : built to walk, crawl, fly, swim, climb, run, and burrow Birds : built to fly (even flightless ones!)
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Why are birds so successful in flying? 1. Feathers 2. Bipedal stance
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Two major structural requirements for flight 1. Light weight 2. Rigidity
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How do birds meet these two requirements? The 4 Design Principles of Bird Architecture 1. Reduction of parts (bones) 2. Fusion of parts 3. Tube or tube-like structures 4. Redistribution of weight towards center of gravity
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Redistribution of Body Mass
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Hollow Bones
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Skulls A = Thecodont B = Dinosaur C = Archaeopteryx D = Pigeon (modern bird)
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Archaeopteryx vs. modern birds All birds have essentially two skeletons: one for walking ( pelvic girdle) one for flying ( pectoral girdle)
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Bones and Muscles - How to build a flying machine (an...

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