EEL5881_Fall04_UML - Introduction to UML Prashanth...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to UML Prashanth Aedunuthula Fall, 2004 Acknowledgements All the lecture slides were adopted from the slides of Mr. Shiyuan Jin's UML class, EEL 5881, Fall 2003. Overview What is UML? A brief history of UML and its origins. Understanding the basics of UML. UML diagrams UML Modeling tools What is UML? The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a industry-standard graphical language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of software systems, as well as for business modeling. The UML uses mostly graphical notations to express the OO analysis and design of software projects. Simplifies the complex process of software design Why UML for Modeling Use graphical notation to communicate more clearly than natural language (imprecise) and code(too detailed). Help acquire an overall view of a system. UML is not dependent on any one language or technology. UML moves us from fragmentation to standardization. History Time Year Version 2003: 2001: 1999: 1997: 1996: 1995: UML 2.0 UML 1.4 UML 1.3 UML 1.0, 1.1 UML 0.9 & 0.91 Unified Method 0.8 Booch `93 Other methods Booch `91 OMT - 2 OMT - 1 Types of UML Diagrams Use Case Diagram: Displays the relationship among actors and use cases. Class Diagram: Describe the types of objects in the system and various kinds of static relationship that exist among them. Sequence Diagram: Displays the time sequence of the objects participating in the interaction. Types of UML Diagrams Collaboration Diagram Displays an interaction organized around the objects and their links to one another. State Diagram Displays the sequences of states that an object of an interaction goes through during its life in response to received stimuli, together with its responses and actions. Use Case Diagram(core components) Actors: A role that a user plays with respect to the system,including human users and other systems. e.g.,inanimate physical objects (e.g. robot); an external system that needs some information from the current system. Use case: A set of scenarios that describing an interaction between a user and a system. System boundary: rectangle diagram representing the boundary between the actors and the system. Use Case Diagram(core relationship) Association: communication between an actor and Association a use case; Represented by a solid line. Generalization: relationship between one general use case and one specific use case. Represented by a line with a triangular arrow head toward the parent use case. Use Case Diagram(core relationship) Include: a dotted line labeled <<include>> beginning at base use case and ending with an arrows pointing to the include use case. The include relationship occurs when a chunk of behavior is similar across more than one use case. Use "include" in stead of copying the description of that behavior. <<include>> Extend: a dotted line labeled <<extend>> with an arrow toward the base case. The extending use case may add behavior to the base use case. The base class declares "extension points". <<extend>> Use Case Diagrams Boundary Actor Library System Use Case Borrow Employee Client Order Title Fine Remittance Supervisor A generalized description of how a system will be used. Provides an overview of the intended functionality of the system Use Case Diagrams(cont.) (TogetherSoft, Inc) Use Case Diagrams(cont.) Pay Bill is a parent use case and Bill Insurance is the child use case. (generalization) Both Make Appointment and Request Medication include Check Patient Record as a subtask.(include) The extension point is written inside the base case Pay bill; the extending class Defer payment adds the behavior of this extension point. (extend) Class Each class is represented by a rectangle subdivided into three compartments Name Attributes Operations Modifiers are used to indicate visibility of attributes and operations. `+' is used to denote Public visibility (everyone) `#' is used to denote Protected visibility (friends and derived) `' is used to denote Private visibility (no one) By default, attributes are hidden and operations are visible. The last two compartments may be omitted to simplify the class diagrams An example of Class Account_Name - Custom_Name - Balance +AddFunds( ) +WithDraw( ) +Transfer( ) Name Attributes Operations Multiplicity and Roles student 1 University 0..1 employer Multiplicity Symbol 1 0..1 M..N * 0..* 1..* Meaning One and only one Zero or one From M to N (natural language) From zero to any positive integer From zero to any positive integer From one to any positive integer * Person * teacher Role Role "A given university groups many people; some act as students, others as teachers. A given student belongs to a single university; a given teacher may or may not be working for the university at a particular time." Class Diagram Name Attributes Order -dateReceived -isPrepaid -number :String -price : Money +dispatch() +close() Multiplicity: mandatory class 1 Customer -name -address +creditRating() : String() * Association Operations 1 {if Order.customer.creditRating is "poor", then Order.isPrepaid must be true } Corporate Customer Generalization Personal Customer -creditCard# Constraint Multiplicity: Many value Multiplicity: optional (inside braces{}} -contactName -creditRating -creditLimit +remind() +billForMonth(Integer) * 0..1 Employee * OrderLine -quantity: Integer -price: Money -isSatisfied: Boolean * 1 Product [from UML Distilled Third Edition] OO Relationships: Generalization Supertype Example: Customer Regular Customer Loyalty Customer Subtype1 Subtype2 or: Customer Generalization expresses a relationship among related classes. It is a class that includes its subclasses. Regular Customer Loyalty Customer OO Relationships: Composition COMPOSITION Whole Class Class W Composition: expresses a relationship among instances of related classes. It is a specific kind of Whole-Part relationship. It expresses a relationship where an instance of the Whole-class has the responsibility to create and initialize instances of each Part-class. Class P1 Class P2 It may also be used to express a relationship where instances of the Part-classes have privileged access or visibility to certain attributes and/or behaviors defined by the Whole-class. Composition should also be used to express relationship where instances of the Whole-class have exclusive access to and control of instances of the Part-classes. Automobile Composition should be used to express a relationship where the behavior of Part instances is undefined without being related to an instance of the Whole. And, conversely, the behavior of the Whole is ill-defined or incomplete if one or more of the Part instances are undefined. Part Classes Example Engine Transmission [From Dr.David A. Workman] OO Relationships: Aggregation Container Class Class C AGGREGATION Aggregation: expresses a relationship among instances of related classes. It is a specific kind of ContainerContainee relationship. Class E2 It expresses a relationship where an instance of the Container-class has the responsibility to hold and maintain instances of each Containee-class that have been created outside the auspices of the Container-class. Aggregation should be used to express a more informal relationship than composition expresses. That is, it is an appropriate relationship where the Container and its Containees can be manipulated independently. Aggregation is appropriate when Container and Containees have no special access privileges to each other. Apples Milk Class E1 Containee Classes Example Bag [From Dr.David A. Workman] Aggregation vs. Composition Composition is really a strong form of aggregation components have only one owner components cannot exist independent of their owner components live or die with their owner e.g. Each car has an engine that can not be shared with other cars. Aggregations may form "part of" the aggregate, but may not be essential to it. They may also exist independent of the aggregate. e.g. Apples may exist independent of the bag. Sequence Diagram(make a call) Caller Picks up Dial tone Dial Ring notification Phone Recipient Ring Picks up Hello Sequence Diagram:Object interaction A B Synchronous Self-Call: A message that an Self-Call Object sends to itself. Condition: indicates when a message is sent. The message is sent only if the condition is true. Condition Asynchronous Transmission delayed [condition] remove() *[for each] remove() Iteration Self-Call Sequence Diagrams Object Life Spans Creation A Create message Object life starts at that point Activation Symbolized by rectangular stripes Place on the lifeline where object is activated. Rectangle also denotes when object is deactivated. Activation bar Deletion Placing an `X' on lifeline Lifeline Object's life ends at that point Create B Return X Deletion Sequence Diagram User Message 1: look up () 2: title data () Catalog Reservations 3: [not available] reserve title () 4 : title returned () 5: hold title () 5 : title available () 6 : borrow title () 6 : remove reservation () Sequence diagrams demonstrate the behavior of objects in a use case by describing the objects and the messages they pass. The horizontal dimension shows the objects participating in the interaction. The vertical arrangement of messages indicates their order. The labels may contain the seq. # to indicate concurrency. Interaction Diagrams: Collaboration diagrams start 6: remove reservation 3 : [not available] reserve title User 6 : borrow title 2: title data 1: look up 5: title available Reservations 4 : title returned Catalog 5 : of title Shows the relationship between objects and the orderhold messages passed between them. between them. The objects are listed as rectangles and arrows indicate the messages being passed The numbers next to the messages are called sequence numbers. They show the sequence of the messages as they are passed between the objects. convey the same information as sequence diagrams, but focus on object roles instead of the time sequence. CRC Card (Class Responsibility Collaborator) Benefits: It is easy to describe how classes work by moving cards around; allows to quickly consider alternatives. Class Reservations Collaborators Catalog User session Responsibility Keep list of reserved titles Handle reservation State Diagrams (Billing Example) State Diagrams show the sequences of states an object goes through during its life cycle in response to stimuli, together with its responses and actions; an abstraction of all possible behaviors. Start Unpaid Invoice created payin g End Paid Invoice destroying (Traffic light example) Traffic Light Start State Diagrams State Transition Red Yellow Green Event UML Modeling Tools Rational Rose ( by IBM UML Studio 7.1 ( by Pragsoft Corporation Capable of handling very large models (tens of thousands of classes). Educational License US$ 125.00; Freeware version. ) OpenSource; written in java TogetherSoft Control Center; TogetherSoft Solo ( by Borland ArgoUML (free software) ( Others ( ) UML studio 7.1 Reference 1. UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling Language Martin Fowler, Kendall Scott 2. Practical UML A HandsOn Introduction for Developers 3. OO Concepts in UML. Dr. David A. Workman, School of EE and CS. UCF. 4. Software Engineering Principles and Practice. Second Edition; Hans van Vliet. ...
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