I.Part I: Essay [50 points] Two of the following essays will appear on the midterm. You will be asked to choose ONE of thetwo. This section is worth 50% of the exam—plan your time wisely! -Begin your essay with an introductory thesis that presents the main points you are goingto make. Then substantiate your points with specific details from the lectures, discussionsyou had in section, and (especially) the source readings. A good essay will weavetogether historical argument with specific supporting evidence. 1.Why and how did Martin Luther’s personal spiritual crisis become a religious, political,and social revolution? Here you will have to consider how Luther’s ideas wereappropriated by others and how they were applied to social and political ends far differentthan Luther himself might have imagined.
2.What was the relationship between the seventeenth-century Absolutist state and theScientific Revolution? Here consider their respective origins in the intellectual andpolitical upheavals of the late 16th century, their intellectual and political affinities, aswell as their antagonisms.
3.The French revolution produced the most “modern” form of democratic politics before1800. How did these politics have their origins in the intellectual, political, and socialchanges of the early modern period? And what was new about them? -Some Suggested Works: -Machiavelli: Advice for rulers on how to rule. The king is the protector of thepeople.