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Unformatted text preview: Overview of Wireless Networks:
Cellular Mobile Ad hoc Sensor Cellular Architecture
- Infrastructure-based networks - All units are fixed in location except mobile units - BS and MSC are connected via wirelines - Communication between BS and mobile unit is wireless WIRELINE Cell Base Station (BS) Mobile unit Wireless Links Wired Links Mobile Switching Center (MSC) NETWORK Why Mobile Ad hoc Networks? Characteristics
- Infrastructure-less - All nodes are potentially mobile - Network topology is dynamic - All nodes act as individual routers Examples - Disaster recovery situations
- Battle field communications - Law enforcement operations - Civilian applications Objectives
- Maintain connectivity between mobile devices - Provide congestion-free routing for multimedia traffic - Support scalability - Minimize memory, bandwidth and energy consumption Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) transmission range Hybrid Environments Use infrastructure when convenient Use ad hoc connectivity when necessary or superior BS1 infrastructure BS2 A Ad hoc connectivity X E Z 2001 Nitin Vaidya Variations Symmetric environments
o Nodes having identical capabilities and responsibilities Asymmetric capabilities
o Transmission ranges o Processing power o Battery lifetime o Mobility speed Asymmetric responsibilities
o Some nodes may forward route packages o Leaders vs. ordinary nodes May co-exist (and collaborate) with an infrastructure-based
network Variations Traffic characteristics
o Bit rate o Timeliness constraints o Reliability requirements Mobility Patterns
o Students on campus o Passengers on airports o Taxi cabs Mobility Characteristics
o Speed / Direction / Pattern of movement Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks consists of group of sensor nodes to perform distributed sensing task using wireless medium. Characteristics
- low-cost, low-power, lightweight - densely deployed - prone to failures - two ways of deployment: randomly, pre-determined or engineered Objectives
- Monitor activities - Gather and fuse information - Communicate with global data processing unit Sensor Networks
Application Areas [Akyildiz+ 2002] 1. Military: Monitoring equipment and ammunition Battlefield surveillance and damage assessment Nuclear, biological, chemical attack detection and reconnaissance 1. Environmental: Forest fire / flood detection 1. Health: Tracking and monitoring doctors and patients inside a hospital Drug administration in hospitals Sensor Networks
Application Areas [Akyildiz+ 2002] 1. Home: Home automation Smart environment 1. Other Commercial Applications: Environmental control in office buildings Detecting and monitoring car thefts Managing inventory control Vehicle tracking and detection Sensor Networks vs. Traditional Wireless Networks (Cellular, MANET) Higher number of sensor nodes (several orders of magnitude) Dense deployment Prone to failures Limited in power, computation and memory May not have global identification (ID) due to high overhead and the total number of sensors Optimization on the energy consumption vs. QoS and high bandwidth constraints Stationary vs. mobile Data flow: unidirectional vs. bi-directional Date rates Sensor Networks Preliminaries For large scale environment monitoring applications, dense sensor networks are mainly used Sensing capabilities should be distributed and coordinated amongst the sensor nodes Algorithms deployed should be localized since transmissions between large distances are expensive and lowers networks life time These networks should be self-configuring, scalable, redundant and robust during topology changes Current Challenges Limited wireless transmission range Broadcast nature of the wireless medium Packet losses due to transmission errors Mobility-induced route changes Mobility-induced packet losses Battery constraints Potentially frequent network partitions Ease of snooping on wireless transmissions (security hazard) Research Problems in Ad hoc and Sensor Networks Clustering Partitioning of the network Identification of vital nodes (clusterheads) Routing Discovering routes from source to destination Maintaining the routes Rediscovery and repair of routes Topology management Maintain the links Minimize the changes in underlying graph Security Research Problems in Ad hoc and Sensor Networks Medium Access Control Protocols Sensor data management Power conservation/energy consumption Data fusion and dissemination of sensor data New applications for ad hoc and sensor networks References
[Akyildiz+ 2002] I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, A Survey on Sensor Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 102-114, August 2002. ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2011 for the course EEL 6788 taught by Professor Boloni,l during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.
- Spring '08
- Wireless Networks